North Carolina & Tobacco

[excerpt from http://www.pbs.org/pov/brightleaves/historical-background/]

Tobacco and tobacco growers put North Carolina on the map.

Since the colonial era, the economy was fueled primarily by agriculture, and for the past century tobacco was North Carolina’s key product. Farming and industry in the state were built around the crop, and two of the four largest cities developed as company towns for the world’s largest tobacco companies.

Ironically, the innovation that led the state to become a tobacco-growing powerhouse came from a slave, a man named Stephen who worked on the farm of Captain Abisha Slade.

While curing a batch of tobacco in a smoky barn, he let the wood fire go out, and quickly restarted it with charcoal. The intense heat cured the tobacco quickly, turning it a vivid yellow. When this “brightleaf” (or flue-cured) tobacco was sold, it proved appealing to smokers, and within a decade, flue-cured tobacco became one of the most common varieties in production. The rapid curing process was also particularly well-suited for tobacco grown in the sandy soil of the coastal plains. Suddenly, farms that were producing other crops turned to tobacco.

North of Durham, a small farmer named Washington Duke opened a small factory on his homestead, producing loose tobacco for rolling cigarettes. Through an intense marketing effort, Duke managed to earn substantial profits from a relatively small output of flue-cured tobacco.

With his son James Buchanan “Buck” Duke, he later moved the business to downtown Durham, close to the tobacco warehouses where small farmers  sold their crops. Duke’s biggest rival was W.T. Blackwell and Company, which marketed a popular “Spanish” blend of tobacco that later gained fame under the trade name Bull Durham.

Smoking began to replace chewing as the preferred means of consuming tobacco, and cigars and cigarettes came to be seen as stylish accessories. In 1880, manufacturers based in North Carolina produced 2 million pre-rolled cigarettes, each of them rolled by hand.

Each of the largest manufacturers sought to mechanize the rolling process, but met with little success until 1884, when Washington and Buck Duke signed an exclusive contract to use a machine designed by James Bonsack. Using Bonsack’s machine, the Dukes were able to produce more cigarettes than all their competitors combined.

Determined to broaden the scope of his business, Buck Duke invested heavily in advertising and promotion, cementing his company’s place as the market leader. By 1890, five firms accounted for 90 percent of the cigarette market. Duke persuaded his rivals to merge, forming the American Tobacco Company, which controlled the majority of the world tobacco trade until it was broken up under a Supreme Court antitrust ruling in 1911.

The five companies that emerged from that reorganization — R.J. Reynolds, American Tobacco, Lorillard, Liggett and Myers and the British-American Tobacco Company — continued to dominate the market for decades.

Growing was still dominated by larger farms, but demand was so great that even small farmers were able to make profits with tobacco. Sharecropping and tenant farming became common among people who owned no land. Large numbers of African-Americans in the eastern part of the state farmed in this manner, paying a portion of each year’s crop as “rent” to large landowners. As late as 1923, nearly half of the state’s farmers were tenants.

During the Great Depression, farmers tried to compensate for lowered prices by producing more tobacco, leading to even lower prices. The federal government responded by providing subsidies for farmers. In 1938, a quota system was instituted, establishing strict limits on how much each farm could produce, and providing government-sponsored price supports.

Farming and manufacturing recovered quickly with the onset of World War II, as soldiers were once again supplied with cigarette rations. Postwar prosperity also boosted demand for cigarettes, which grew until the early 1960s, when concerns about the dangers of smoking became a major public health issue. The US Surgeon General issued a report in 1964 arguing that smoking caused lung cancer and a host of other medical problems.

Over the next four decades, as the number of American smokers declined steadily and restrictions on public smoking increased, the large manufacturers began cutting costs and laying off large numbers of workers and relocating their factories to less expensive areas.

American Tobacco left Durham in 1987, and R.J. Reynolds moved its corporate headquarters away from Winston-Salem in 1989. Both companies made steep cuts at production facilities throughout the 1990s. In 2000, the last cigarette manufacturer, Liggett and Myers, left Durham. The most profitable market for cigarettes in the past decade has been in Asia, and American companies have invested heavily in overseas factories to lower their costs.

As demand for domestically produced tobacco flagged, the federal quotas were also diminished, leading many farmers to cease growing tobacco. The quota system ended in 2005, as part of a $10 billion package to end federal price supports for tobacco growers.

The Tobacco Transition Payment Program (TTPP) provided farmers a series of annual payments, starting in 2005 and continuing until 2014. This program also ended all restrictions on tobacco farmers, but analysts predicted that the majority of growers will cease growing tobacco.

 

Brunswick River Harbored Huge Mothball Fleet

By Ben Steelman
Wilmington StarNews, October 12, 2001

Officially the National Defense Reserve Fleet (and sometimes called “the Ghost Fleet”), the anchored rows of World War II surplus transport vessels, were a presence in Wilmington from 1946 to 1970.

Parked along the Brunswick River, the fleet was described in the press as “the second largest ship graveyard in the world.” (The largest was on the James River near Hampton Roads, Va.)

After World War II, the U.S. Maritime Commission established a “Reserve Fleet Basin” on the Brunswick River to house Liberty ships and other vessels that were no longer needed after demobilization. The first of these vessels, the SS John B. Bryce, arrived at the site on Aug. 12, 1946. Others quickly followed.

During the next few years, ships were moved in and out of the basin; in all, 628 vessels were tied up there at one time or another. The vast majority of these – 542 – were Liberty ships, the mass-produced workhorse freighters like those turned out by the N.C. Shipbuilding Co. in Wilmington. The basin also housed a total of 68 “Victory” ships and 41 vessels of other types, including tankers.

Generally, five of these ships were kept on a high level of readiness, to sail “at a moment’s notice” in the event of a national emergency. The rest were “mothballed,” coated in red-oxide paint, oil and varnish as preservatives to prevent rust.

At its heyday, the U.S. Maritime Administration (which took over the fleet in 1950, after the Maritime Commission was abolished), employed 296 workers on the Brunswick River basin, with a $600,000 payroll.

Many of these were armed guards to prevent theft of the ships’ copper and brass fittings; others were involved in routine maintenance. The ships were lashed and anchored together in groups of five, with each fifth ship moored to pilings driven deep into the river bottom.

Despite these precautions, two of the mothballed freighters broke loose during Hurricane Hazel in 1954 and drifted down the channel, threatening to collide with the U.S. 74 bridge until a tugboat pushed them out-of-the-way.

On Dec. 8, 1958, the SS Edgecomb, a Victory ship, became the last vessel to be tied up at the basin. Beginning in 1958, the government began to sell off older and less fit vessels for scrap, while others were moved to the James River. By 1964, only 152 vessels were left on the Brunswick River, but they remained a formidable sight. “Many motorists stop along the highway to look up the river at them,” said E.W. Thompson, an administrator with the reserve fleet.

By 1968, the total was down to 15 ships. Many were scrapped by Horton Industries in Wilmington; Gilliam Horton, of Horton Iron & Metal, told the Wilmington Morning Star in 1968 that his company could finish off two ships in 90 days.

The last remaining member of the Mothball Fleet, the SS Dwight W. Morrow (named for the father of author Anne Morrow Lindbergh, a former U.S. ambassador to Mexico) was towed away for scrapping on Feb. 27, 1970.

 

January Meeting – Dr. Keith Holland on Shipwreck “Maple Leaf”

Monday, January 15, 2018   7:30 PM

The Federal Point Historic Preservation Society will hold its monthly meeting on Monday, January, 15, 7:30 pm at the Federal Point History Center, 1121-A North Lake Park Blvd., adjacent to Carolina Beach Town Hall.

Our speaker will be Dr. Keith Holland from Jacksonville, Florida, who will discuss the story of the Maple Leaf, a Federal troop transport ship which carried men from six Federal regiments who would later take part in the two attacks on Fort Fisher.

Holland formed a company, St. Johns Archaeological Expeditions Inc. (SJAEI) to salvage the ship. After almost two years of negotiating, a deal was struck giving the federal government 20% and the salvagers 80% of what was found.

SJAEI subsequently relinquished its rights to the artifacts in order to keep the entire collection intact. The collection of artifacts was given to and remains with the Florida Division of Historical Resources in Tallahassee. In 2015, most of the collection that belonged to the federal government was removed from the State of Florida for possible display at the future National Museum of the US Army in Ft. Belvoir, Virginia.

Over a ten-day period in 1989, over 3000 objects were recovered from the shipwreck site and they all had to be handled properly to preserve them. Once taken to the surface and to a source of abundant oxygen, materials start to deteriorate quickly. Holland and crew learned how to safely preserve their precious finds. They learned to treat materials with chemicals, freeze drying and electrical currents to stop oxidation.

The Maple Leaf

[From the National Park Service website]

Constructed in Kingston, Ontario, the Great Lakes passenger steamship, Maple Leaf, set out to sea on June 18, 1851. Its first owner, Donald Bethune and Company, used the Maple Leaf as a passenger ship until the company started to flounder.

Mr. Bethune subsequently fled the country and the remaining partners sold the vessel to a company based in Rochester, New York, in 1855. At the time, a new reciprocity treaty between the United States and Canada temporarily revitalized Lake Ontario shipping, but by the end of the decade the United States found itself in a depression. Although the shipping trade went into decline, the charter market for steamers rose as a result of the Civil War. In 1862, the Maple Leaf was sold to Bostonians J.H.B. Lang and Charles Spear who chartered it to the U.S. Army.

The Maple Leaf was used as a transport vessel, bringing Union troops south to Virginia. In 1863, Confederate prisoners-of-war (POWs) on the ship overpowered their guards and took control of the vessel. After landing, the POWs escaped to Richmond.

The Union recovered the boat and continued to use it to transport troops along the East Coast until 1864. In April of that year, the Maple Leaf struck a Confederate “torpedo” (what we would now call a mine) off Mandarin Point in the St. John’s River.

The explosion tore the bow of the ship apart, ripping through the deck and killing four soldiers. The vessel sank quickly, but apart from those lost in the explosion, there were no other fatalities.

The Maple Leaf was never salvaged and, while the U.S. Treasury Department attempted to sell the wreck and signed two contracts in 1873 and 1876 that required removal of the wreck, no sale occurred.

Since the remains of the Maple Leaf were blocking a portion of the river and were a serious threat to other vessels, in 1882, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers contracted to move the wreck to its present location.

The Maple Leaf was 181 feet long by 25 feet wide and weighs 398 tons. The wreck is buried beneath 7 feet of mud in 20 feet of water. It is extremely well preserved under the mud with the hull virtually intact save for the starboard box and deck, which were damaged in the explosion.

However, what makes the wreck of the Maple Leaf truly amazing is the vast amount of cargo associated with the submerged steamer. More than 3,000 individual artifacts have been recovered from the Maple Leaf and are on public display at the Jacksonville Museum of Science and History.

The Maple Leaf wreck, a National Historic Landmark, lies in the middle of the St. John’s River about 12 miles south of downtown Jacksonville, Florida. Unlike other shipwrecks on this itinerary, the public is not permitted to dive on the Maple Leaf. The St. John’s River is extremely muddy and the visibility in the area around the Maple Leaf is extremely poor.

It is possible to view the artifacts recovered from the Maple Leaf at the Jacksonville Museum of Science and History. The exhibit contains the largest single collection of Civil War artifacts in the world, along with recovered sections of the wreck. For more information visit Maple Leaf Shipwreck.

The Christmas Flounder

By Ken Blevins / StarNews Photographer

Posted Dec 20, 2010 at 12:01 AM

If there is an old-timer in your house today, he probably is not reminiscing about the grand old tradition of The Christmas Flounder. It is practically forgotten.

The Christmas Flounder is a Yuletide custom unknown outside Southeastern North Carolina, according to Paul Jennewein, the late veteran newsman who was the world’s only authority on the matter. According to Jennewein, it began during the Great Depression, when people in this area were even poorer than usual.

Buying and stuffing a turkey for Christmas dinner was out of the question for many. Something else was needed, something that poor folks could procure in the days before food stamps.

The unfortunate flounders, lovingly stuffed with native delicacies such as oysters, crabs, collards and grits, graced Christmas tables all over the area. Non-Baptists who knew a reliable bootlegger accompanied the humble dish with a jelly glass of high-octane cheer.

It was a tradition born of hardship, but it is unique and deserves to be remembered as part of the folklore of the Lower Cape Fear.

(Reprinted in the Wilmington StarNews every Christmas Eve in an effort to keep this grand tradition alive.)

1- to 3-pound medium flounder (Have your flounder prepared at the fish market by cutting down the center of the fish and filleting the top fillets back.)

1 pound crab meat                                                      2 tablespoons Worcestershire sauce

½ pound medium shrimp                                            2 tablespoons of butter

½ red bell pepper                                                        ½ cup mayonnaise

½ green bell pepper                                                     2 cups of cornbread crumbs

½ white onion                                                             1 egg

Start by dicing up the onion and peppers and then combine them in a pan with the butter and sauté until the onions become clear. While the onions and peppers are cooking, cut your shrimp into small chunks and add them to your crabmeat in a medium size bowl. Once you have your shrimp and crab mixed, add the cornbread, egg, Worcestershire sauce, mayonnaise, onions and peppers.

After you have all of your ingredients together, open your flounder and begin adding your stuffing. You can add as much as you like, but if you have any leftovers I would suggest making crab cakes out of it for appetizers.

Close your flounder around the stuffing. I suggest putting three bamboo skewers through the fillets and stuffing, holding the sides together and keeping the fish closed. Now that your flounder is prepared, brush it with a little melted butter to help keep it moist. Place the flounder in the oven at 325 degrees for 30 minutes until the shrimp are cooked. Remove and serve. This should feed 4 people.

[To read the original Christmas Flounder story see this year’s December 24th StarNews]

 

October Meeting – North Carolina’s War of 1812

Monday, October 16, 2017
7:30 PM

The Federal Point Historic Preservation Society will hold its monthly meeting on Monday, October 16, 7:30 pm at the Federal Point History Center, 1121-A North Lake Park Blvd., adjacent to Carolina Beach Town Hall.

Our program this month will be presented by Andrew Duppstadt, Program Development and Training Officer, Historic Weapons Program Coordinator, North Carolina Division of State Historic Sites, North Carolina Department of Natural and Cultural Resources

North Carolina’s War of 1812 Personalities explores the lives of five native North Carolinians who contributed in some significant way to the country’s efforts during the War of 1812.

Otway Burns

Those individuals are Benjamin Forsyth, Dolley Payne Madison, Otway Burns, Johnston Blakeley, and Nathaniel Macon. Some are better known than others, but each made some contribution to the nation’s efforts during that time period, and in some cases beyond.

This presentation gives a brief overview of each.

Benjamin Forsyth

Dolley Madison

Johnston Blakeley

 

Nathaniel Macon

 

North Carolina and the War of 1812

    From the website: http://www.carolana.com

In the early nineteenth century, North Carolinians were quite aware of England’s continued, friendly relations with the Indians on the frontier. Outposts in Canada stocked guns and ammunition with which they supplied the various Indian nations.

England’s provocation of the young nation of the United States of America increased markedly between 1793 and 1812, when England and France were at war. Both nations disregarded the rights of neutrals and stopped American ships on the high seas in search of their own nationals who might be evading military service.

In 1807, a British ship fired on an American ship, boarded it, and removed four sailors, three of who were American. Attempts to negotiate these differences with England failed, but in time France stopped this practice. The Embargo Act of 1807, stopping all but coastal trade, harmed the United States more than it did England or France, and it was repealed two years later. Subsequently, a non-intercourse Act prohibited trade with the offending nations, but it was generally ineffective. President James Madison finally recommended that preparations be made for war.

The War of 1812 had little effect on North Carolina except that people were divided in their support. Many said that the United States had withstood the insults of both England and France for years, and that no new incidences had occurred. Others agreed that the freedom of the seas should be defended. Some of the state’s congressmen supported President Madison, while others rejected his call for assistance. Recruiting teams found men eager to serve and the state contributed several important heroes to the war.

Within the State of North Carolina, there were only two minor skirmishes between the British and locals. For five days, July 12-16, 1813, the British landed troops and occupied the small towns of Okracoke in Hyde County and Portsmouth in Carteret County – both on the barrier island of the outer banks.

President Madison’s wife, Dolley Payne Madison, was a native of North Carolina. In Washington, DC, as the British were entering the city from the opposite direction, she delayed her departure from the Executive Mansion long enough to collect the presidential silver and executive papers, and to cut a portrait of George Washington from its frame. She tossed these into the foot of the carriage in which she and the president escaped before the British burned the residence. Later, the blackened walls were painted white and the mansion became known as the White House.

Benjamin Forsyth of Stokes County was a lieutenant colonel in the U.S. Army in 1814, when he distinguished himself along the northern border. He was killed at Odelltown in Canada and, like Brigadier General Francis Nash of the Revolutionary War, he came to be regarded as a hero. The State presented a handsome sword to his eight-year-old son and awarded him $250 a year for seven years. A county was named after him in 1849.

Otway Burns of Onslow County was a ship captain and a shipbuilder. During the War of 1812, as a licensed privateer operating up and down the Atlantic Coast, he brought in large quantities of supplies useful to the war effort.

Captain Johnston Blakely lived in Wilmington and in Pittsboro; after attending the University of North Carolina, he began a naval career.

As the commander of several warships, he sailed boldly around England capturing and destroying  British  shipping efforts. On the last occasion, after seizing a valuable cargo and placing a prize crew aboard to take it to America, he sailed east. Soon, smoke was seen on the horizon but the fate of Captain Blakely and his ship was never determined. The North Carolina General Assembly gave his young daughter a handsome silver tea service and provided funds for her education.

Another native hero was General Andrew Jackson, a native of the Waxhaw region along the North Carolina-South Carolina border. He read law in Salisbury and was licensed to practice in the State, living in Greensboro for a time before moving west to Tennessee.

In the War of 1812, he became the hero of the Battle of New Orleans, where he won a great victory with few American losses. Because of the long time it took for messages to cross the Atlantic Ocean, this battle was fought after the terms of peace had been agreed upon.

The War of 1812, which lasted more than three years, settled almost nothing. The British no longer stopped American ships on the high seas, but neither Canada nor Florida was seized by the United States as many people had expected.

On the other hand, General Jackson’s campaign in the South shattered England’s standing among the Indians and opened large tracts of land in Georgia and Alabama to white settlement. This fact alone probably had the greatest subsequent impact on the State of North Carolina as a consequence of the War of 1812, because immediately, thereafter, the State saw mass emigrations to the newly-opened “free” lands in the south and west, and these were to continue for many decades thereafter.

At the conclusion of the War of 1812, the Federal government initiated a new round of tariffs, beginning with the Tariff of 1816, which increased the price of British goods so that American goods could compete with them.

After the Revolutionary War, the Federal government operated financially primarily as a result of tariffs since at that time there was no income taxation. The Tariff of 1816 was officially enacted to protect American manufacturers, but once again it advanced the nation’s position towards protectionism and hurt the South more than it helped the North.

This new tariff, along with other miscalculations of the early Federal government, led to the Panic of 1819, which harmed the South even more and was another step in increasing the rift between Southern and Northern factions that began as soon as the nation was formed.

Sex and the Civil War

By Doug Coleman

[Reprinted with permission from: The Old Town Crier, December 1, 2014]

L.P. Hartley once wrote: “The past is a foreign country: they do things differently there.” And so it is with the Civil War and American sexual morality during the 1860’s. Things we outlaw, they tolerated. Things we tolerate, they regarded as monstrous crimes.

Start with the notion that Americans in the Victorian age were prudes. Not so, unless one is willing to overlook the large families of that age. Domestic terrorist John Brown managed to sire twenty children before Virginia broke his neck on the gallows for trying to start a national slave revolt.

Thomas P. Lowery relates in his The Story the Soldiers Wouldn’t Tell: Sex in the Civil War an incident occurring in Carlisle, Pennsylvania, a few days before Gettysburg. It seems a North Carolina regiment captured a good supply of Yankee whiskey and were soon helping themselves to it. One of the Tar Heels reported “some of the Pennsylvania women, hearing the noise of the revel and the music, dared to come near us. Soon they had formed the center of attention and joined in the spirit of the doings. After much whiskey and dancing, they shed most of their garments and offered us their bottoms. Each took on dozens of us, squealing in delight. For me it was hard come, easy go.” “With malice towards none, with charity for all”, our friendly Pennsylvanians rattle the stereotype of Victorian prudishness…

Civil War soldiers, or at least the Yankees, had pornography and dirty books. We know this because the Federal provost marshal complained what a chore it was to have to burn the mountains of the stuff his postmasters intercepted. So, pornography was forbidden, but, apparently, it was okay to have the government go through your mail. We have all heard of bullets stopped by Bibles, but at least one soldier claimed to have been saved by a dirty novel concealed on his person.

Prostitution was more or less legal in Alexandria. The 1860 census reflects that Alexandria had seven “soiled doves” and two bawdy houses. Not surprisingly, business boomed in Alexandria once the war was on, our city being described as “a perfect Sodom” with perhaps 75 brothels and 2500 prostitutes. The Federal authorities tolerated the sex trade and, generally, speaking those arrested at bawdy houses were arrested as AWOL or for drunk and disorderly conduct, not for patronizing the girls.   In Richmond, on the other hand, humorless First Families of Virginia (FFVs) consistently cracked down on disorderly houses, at least according to the Dispatch.

When the army moved, the prostitutes moved with them. In 1863, these “camp followers” were given the nickname “Hooker’s Division”, ostensibly after the lifestyle of General Joseph Hooker, who had a reputation for keeping his headquarters well-stocked with whiskey and entertaining women. Actually Hooker was not a big drinker, nor was he much of a womanizer. Similarly, the commonly held belief that “hookers” take their name from General Hooker is probably mistaken, as the term was already in use at least as early as 1845.

If Hooker had kept mistresses, he would not have been out of the mainstream. Confederate general Jubal Early allegedly kept two white mistresses having four children each, plus a mulatto child with a black woman. Custer is alleged to have had an ongoing relationship with his mulatto cook, an escaped slave who was pushed over a cliff in Custer’s carriage when captured by Confederates. Custer’s letters between him and Mrs. Custer were also captured and raised Confederate eyebrows, being described as “vulgar beyond all conversation and even those from his wife would make any honest woman blush for her sex.” Even McClellan was alleged to have lived with a young mistress for the duration of his command. However, one doubts this story, at least for the time when he was in Alexandria headquartered at the Seminary, as an engraving pictures him in front of Cazenove family’s Stuartland with his wife and children in the background.

Occasionally, ordinary soldiers would share their tents with their wives. In the Confederacy, Keith Blalock signed up with “Sam” Blalock, a good-looking sixteen year old boy, actually his wife Melinda. Melinda fought three engagements before she was wounded and found out by the regimental surgeon. Upon discharge from the Confederate army, they continued to soldier on together as Union partisans. In the Army of the Potomac, Kady Brownell and Mary Tepe joined their husband’s regiment as vivandieres, enduring all of the hardships of campaigning and both being wounded in combat.

The predictable drawback of all this sex was venereal disease, mostly syphilis and gonorrhea. Among the white troops, 73,382 cases of syphilis were reported and 109,397 cases of gonorrhea, giving a total of 82 cases of venereal disease annually per thousand men. Among the colored troops syphilis had an annual rate of 33.8 cases and gonorrheal infections 43.9 cases per thousand. The cures were scary enough to encourage chastity. For syphilis, first-line therapy was to cauterize the chancre with a caustic chemical. Secondary therapy might involve highly toxic mercury infusions, hence, the phrase “a night with Venus, a lifetime with Mercury.” For gonorrhea, treatment consisted of urethral injections of nitrate of silver, sugar of lead or sulphate of zinc. Amazingly, in an era before penicillin, these therapies appear to have worked much of the time. Rudimentary condoms, made from sheep intestines called “skins” and secured with a little pink ribbon, were available, but it is anybody’s guess how much protection they afforded to disease.

The Union’s hospital service certainly appreciated the relationship between prostitution and venereal disease and took pragmatic steps to get ahead of the problem. One of these steps was to license working girls, the license being conditioned upon periodic examination by a physician. The other, hand in hand with the first, was to establish hospitals to take out of circulation and treat prostitutes found to be infected. The attached photo depicts such a hospital. And in fact these measures were effective, with Yankee “casualties” dropping off dramatically where instituted. As for the women, their lives were nasty, brutish and short. One physician following a group of prostitutes noted that their life expectancy was only about four years once they entered the trade, alcohol and disease being major risks.  On the deviant side, rape appears to have been relatively rare, with 335 court martials being recorded. When found out, it often resulted in a hanging. A soldier who had raped a free black woman was hanged at Fort Ellsworth before all of the units camped around Alexandria so that everyone understood this. Twenty-two other soldiers were executed for rape over the course of the war.

Homosexuality was not much of an issue. There are not many recorded, probably because sodomy was regarded as an unspeakable crime. Though some reenactors a few years back “reenacted” a firing squad for two soldiers dressed in pink uniforms for “conduct unbecoming”, in fact there is no record of any soldier on either side being executed for the offense of homosexuality, or for that matter being disciplined for the offense. However, a handful of sailors were thrown out of the navy. Military law did not specifically outlaw sodomy until 1921. But we should not infer from this that homosexuality was previously accepted along the lines of “don’t ask, don’t tell.” Keep in mind that at the time of the Revolution sodomy was punishable by death in all thirteen colonies. In 1779, Thomas Jefferson proposed a more lenient penal code under which homosexuals would be castrated and lesbians would have their noses pierced with half-inch holes; Jefferson’s proposal was rejected and sodomy remained a capital crime until 1831.

As recently as World War II, the usual sentence for sodomy in the United States Army was 85 years. William Manchester in his 1979 autobiographical, Goodbye, Darkness, describes the sensibilities of young marines in the 1940’s: “Youth is more sophisticated today, but in our innocence we knew almost nothing about homosexuality. We had never heard of lesbians, and while we were aware that male homosexuals existed – they were regarded as degenerates and called “sex perverts,” or simply “perverts” – most of us, to our knowledge, never encountered one.” The attitude of the farm boys who fought in World War II is probably pretty close to that of the farm boys who fought in the Civil War.

But plaster saints these soldiers were not.


Sources: Thomas P. Lowry, The Story the Soldiers Wouldn’t Tell: Sex in the Civil War

Thomas P. Lowry, Sexual Misbehavior in the Civil War; 

William Manchester, Goodbye, Darkness; Treatment of Venereal Disease in the Civil War,

Doug Coleman is an attorney and amateur historian in Alexandria; comments and corrections are welcome at dcoleman@coleman-lawyers.com.

‘American Routes’ Sea Breeze Beach

Seabreeze Resort

Each week, American Routes brings you the songs and stories that describe both the community origins of our music, musicians and cultures — the “roots”— and the many directions they take over time — the “routes.”

This week (July 19 – 26, 2017), we travel to Sea Breeze Beach in North Carolina.

In the late 19th century African American beach communities emerged along the East Coast as havens for black vacationers excluded from white beaches.

Sea Breeze provided summertime leisure to African Americans throughout the Jim Crow era and became one of the few integrated places where blacks and whites could hang out, hear music, and dance together.

Nick Spitzer talks to Elder Alfred Mitchell and Brenda Freeman about their summer memories of Sea Breeze before white developers claimed ownership of the beach.

Enjoy the full program (11:22) at americanroutes.org.

 

 

National History Day, 2017

National History Day®

Have you ever heard of it?

I hadn’t either, until about a year ago.  But the chance to meet young people who LOVE history and are engaged in the process of historical research intrigued me so I volunteered to judge at the regional level here in Wilmington.

As a volunteer judge, I reported to the Cape Fear Museum not quite sure what I had gotten myself into, but the short training session and some handouts made me familiar enough with the goals of the program to ease my worries.  We hear a lot about how little history kids get in school today, but the crowd of high schoolers at the Cape Fear Museum blew me away. Bright and knowledgeable, sophisticated and earnest, a building full of them renewed my faith in the next generation of historians.

I was assigned to judge individual documentaries. Each student had produced an up to 10 minute video using this year’s theme, “Taking a Stand in History.” Some were good, and some were okay, but our winning choice just blew me away!  A poised and articulate young woman presented her documentary on how, in the 1960s, Coach Dean Smith took a stand and helped integrate the UNC system and college basketball country-wide, something I knew nothing about. As we talked to her after we watched her film we discovered she is headed to UNC next fall to a program that combines History and Communications into a five year undergraduate and graduate program. Frankly, she’s ready for PBS or CNN now.

Because the competition is so large, the middle schoolers were at the Bellamy Mansion so I didn’t get to see any of them here at the regional. But, I’d volunteered to be a judge at the state competition as well and was assigned the middle school level documentaries in Raleigh.

What a day! The top three regional winners in each category; paper, exhibit, documentary, website, and performance, had qualified for the state level where the competition intensifies.

The North Carolina Museum of History and the State Archives Building were literally mobbed with young people and parents from all across the state. There must have been close to fifty judges to cover all the categories. I may be slightly prejudiced but the halls had the energy and feeling of a sports championship! I just loved seeing kids so totally engaged in history.

Among the documentaries I judged at the State level were ones on Bernie Sanders, Muhammad Ali, Martin Luther, Edward Snowden, Alexander Hamilton, and our first choice Kay Lahusen, an early gay rights activist. Remember these kids were middle schoolers. They can do stuff with digital media and video editing software I can only begin to comprehend.  I so wanted to stop them and say, “Teach me how to do that!”

The top three winners in each category and age level advance to the national competition in College Park, Maryland in early June where they will join the 3,000 winners across the country to compete for top prizes.

Last year Jordyn Williams from Greenville, NC won a full four year scholarship to Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio. Her topic: “Exploring Plants and Society: The Life-Altering Encounters of Dr. Percy L. Julian.”

What I learned: It is cool to be a “history nerd” in today’s schools and colleges.  And that makes me relieved that there will be a new generation of historians to study history so we don’t make the same mistakes all over again.

– Rebecca Taylor

 Would you like to be a judge?  They are always looking for people for the regional here in Wilmington in late March.  I’d be glad to hook you up with the local coordinator. All it takes is a short (less than an hour) training and about ½ a day of your time on the day of the competition.