A History of Fort Fisher “The Battles for the Fort” (Part 2 of 3)

By Sandy Jackson

[Originally published in the July, 1995 – FPHPS Newsletter]

Federal forces began plans for a joint army-navy attack on Fort Fisher during the fall of 1864.

Shortly after the southern forces learned on October 24, 1864, of the impending attack, Confederate general Braxton Bragg assumed command of the defenses of Wilmington. He superseded Gen. W.H.C. Whiting, who remained his second-in-command.

The Confederates assembled 1,430 men at Fort Fisher in preparation for the assault. An additional force of 6,000 veterans from Lee’s army under the command of Maj. Gen. Robert F. Hoke were located 5 miles up the river at Sugar Loaf.

The expected Federal fleet finally arrived off Fort Fisher on the morning of December 20 under the command of Admiral David Porter.  Aboard the fifty-six warships that gathered New Inlet was an army unit of 6,500 infantrymen under the command of Maj. Gen. Benjamin F. Butler.

Click for details

Click for details

The first attempt the Federals made to take the fort began on the night of December 23, when the powder ship Louisiana, with more than 215 tons of powder, was exploded within 200 yards of the fort. It was hoped that the blast from the vessel would create a gap in the earthen defense. After a lengthy delay, however, the ship finally exploded at 1:52 AM. doing no damage.

For two days, December 24 and 25, Fort Fisher came under a heavy bombardment that did little destruction.

During the afternoon on Christmas day, 2,000 troops under General Butler made an unopposed landing at Battery Anderson, 3 miles up the coast. Unable to advance upon the fort because of artillery fire, General Butler withdrew his troops.

On December 27 the Federal vessels sailed north along the coast to Beaufort, North Carolina, having been unsuccessful in their initial effort to capture Fort Fisher.

The Confederates were jubilant at having withstood the land attack of General Butler and the naval bombardment from Admiral Porter’s ships. General Bragg, not expecting a renewed attack from the Union forces, ordered Hoke’s 6,000 troops into Wilmington in preparation for a move against occupied New Bern.

Disappointed with the failure of General Butler to take Fort Fisher, General U. S. Grant replaced Butler with Maj. Gen. Alfred H. Terry and ordered an additional 1,500 troops to ready themselves for a second attack on the fortification within the following weeks.

The Federal fleet, then numbering warships mounting 627 guns, reassembled at Beaufort, and proceeded back to Fort Fisher. On the night of January, 12, 1865, the Federal fleet reappeared off Confederate Point. The following morning, the second attack on Fort Fisher commenced when the five ironclads began bombarding the land defenses. The rest of the fleet, which joined in the bombardment of the fort that continued day and night from the thirteenth to the fifteenth. More than 50,000 shells and roundshot were directed at Fort Fisher during this period-the heaviest shelling of any fort during the war.

Map - Fort Fisher 1865

Click for detail

On January 14 Federal troops again landed above Fort Fisher, in the vicinity of Battery Anderson. There the infantry entrenched from the sea to the river and were supported by light artillery brought ashore. To prevent Gen. Braxton Bragg from arriving from Wilmington to enforce the fort, 4,700 men were placed along the entrenchment.

The remaining 3,300 men under the command of General Terry moved against Fort Fisher. At the pre-arranged hour of 3:00 PM. on January 15, the assault began under a covering fire from the Federal vessels.

In an effort to draw the fire away from General Terry’s troops, 400 marines and 1,600 sailors, landed near the fort the evening before and, armed with pistols and cutlasses, attacked the northeast bastion on the beach side.

The main attack by General Terry and his men came along the river at the end battery. During the ensuing battle, General Whiting was mortally wounded and Colonel Lamb severely wounded. The Confederate survivors of the battle fled to Battery Buchanan in hopes of finding boats as a means of escape.

The assault finally ended at 10 o’clock on the evening of January 15 when the last of the Confederate defenders, finding boats no longer there, could do nothing but surrender. Federal casualties had been costly, with nearly 1,300 men lost, but the expedition had finally been successful.

The “last major stronghold of the confederacy” had fallen. Blockade-runners could no longer enter the safety of the Cape Fear River to unload at Wilmington, and in the following month even the city would be occupied by Union forces.

 

Bibliography

Fort Fisher State Historic Site
1974 “Fort Fisher State Historic Site Master Development Plan”. North Carolina Department of Natural and Economic Resources and North Carolina Department of Cultural Resources.

Lamb, William Colonel
1896 “Defense of Fort Fisher, North Carolina” In Operation on The Atlantic Coast 1861-1865, Virginia 1862-1864.
Vicksburg: Papers of The Military Historical Society of Massachusetts“, Vol. IX, 1912 Boston: The Military Historical Society of Massachusetts.

Powell, William S.
1968 “The North Carolina Gazetteer“. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press.

Sprunt, James
1992 “Chronicles of The Cape Fear River 1660-1916“. Second edition. Wilmington: Broadfoot Publishing Co. Originally published, Raleigh: Edwards & Broughton Printing Co., 1916.


[Additional resources]

The Wilmington Campaign  (Dr. Chris Fonvielle)
Fort Fisher I: Folly
North Carolina Civil War Sesquicentennial – Maps

July, 1995 (pdf) – FPHPS Newsletter

Free to a Good Home

Free to a Good Home

Early issues of the Federal Point Historic Preservation Society Newsletters

 New to the Society?

Interested in reading about our early history?

We’ve uncovered a stash of old Newsletters and are giving them away free.

Stop by the History Center any time we’re open and check out what’s left.

To read any of the archived Newsletters published between 1994 thru 2014, just visit our home page.  Then using the top main menu select ‘FPHPS Resources‘ scroll down and select ‘Archived Newsletters 1994 – 2014′

 

Federal Point Methodist Church

[Originally published in the July, 1996 FPHPS Newsletter – Sandy Jackson, editor]

[Editor (1996):  The following article on the Federal Point Methodist Church written by Jim Hardie originally appeared in the Wilmington News on February 23, 1956. I wish to thank Mr. Peter Haswell for bringing this article to my attention.]

Situated among the scrub oaks and long-leaf pines in this remote area of New Hanover County is a quaint three-room church which might be the “Mother” Methodist Church in North Carolina. ‘I think it’s considered the “Mother” Methodist Church in the state,’ said V. E. Queen, Methodist district superintendent.

01-FedPtMethodist-ChurchCemetary-Dow-Rd-Sign1There are no records available to confirm, or discredit, Federal Point Methodist Church as being the original Methodist Church in the state. At any rate, the church is definitely more than 112 years old, and may possibly be 162 years old. Some of the valuable old records in the basement of the historic old New Hanover County Courthouse, which date back to the early 1700’s throw some light on the subject, but there are years which slipped by unrecorded, leaving a vast area of unknown which only speculation can fill.

On July 14, 1725, the Commonwealth of North Carolina deeded to Maurice Moore, “500 acres, more or less,” at the southeastern corner of New Hanover County. That 500 acres today takes in Kure Beach and Fort Fisher. Moore acquired the land because as a major in the army, he had led some troops across the Cape Fear River and landed in the vicinity of Sugar Loaf Hill, a few hundred yards north of Federal Point.

Moore expressed the desire to establish a settlement around Sugar Loaf and Federal Point, and did so. At the same time he got the land for a settlement at Federal Point, Major Moore was building a plantation on a overlooking the Cape Fear River, just north of Orton Plantation.

It wasn’t until the spring of 1736 that the 500 acres which Moore had acquired, changed hands. Thomas Merrick took over the vast stretch of sandy wasteland from Moore.

Merrick had two daughters, Dorothy and Sarah. In his will, Merrick directed that all his land be divided equally between his daughters. Dorothy died without marrying, and Sarah was sole heir to the acres of sand, bordered on the south and east by the ocean, on the west by the Cape Fear River, and on the north by a boundary line.

Sarah Merrick married Samuel Ashe, Jr., and in 1788, they sold the southern half of their land to Archibald McLaine, and in 1792, they sold the remaining tract to William Mosely.

Moser didn’t hold onto the 300 acres he bought, very long, because on April 12, 1794, he sold his holdings at Federal Point to Joseph Newton. Some 49 years had passed from the time the state gave 500 acres to Major Maurice Moore, and Joseph Newton bought 300 acres of the same tract.

Federal Point Methodist Church 1935 Foreground - A Hewlett Grave

Federal Point Methodist Church 1935
Foreground – A Hewlett Grave

It was on the 300 acres bought by Joseph Newton that the Federal Point Methodist Church was built. It is entirely possible that a hand-full of people began holding simple worship services on the land of Joseph Newton soon after he bought it. This speculation is strengthened by the knowledge that a settlement existed at Federal Point during that time, and there is reason to believe those settlers were religious. Being far removed from the church facilities afforded by Wilmington, it is reasonable to assume they had their own makeshift services.

They may have congregated at Newton’s home on Sundays, then sometime later built a small meeting place which came to be known as the ‘Meeting House.’  New Hanover historian Louis T. Moore has no records on the Federal Point Methodist Church, but he has some ideas in connection with its beginning.

Moore, a direct descendant of Maurice Moore, the original owner of the land, agrees that a group could have held church meetings at Joseph Newton’s home as early as 1794, “But I doubt it. It is more likely that Federal Point Methodist Church was organized in the early eighteen hundreds, following the arrival of the Rev. William Meredith,” Moore said.

The Rev. Mr. Meredith came to Wilmington in 1797, and is regarded as the first Methodist minister in this area. Grace Methodist Church, which was organized in Wilmington, by the Rev. Mr. Meredith in 1797, is considered by historian Moore, as being the oldest Methodist Church in the state. There is no doubt that the arrival of the Rev. Mr. Meredith in this area the Methodist movement in this section, but there is still the contention that a group was meeting at Joseph Newton’s home before the Rev. Mr. Meredith came.

The early years during which Joseph Newton built his ‘homeplace’ at Federal Point, are shrouded by mystery, and it isn’t until the 1840s that we are able to pick up the chain of recorded events. Edward Newton, Jr., grandson of Joseph Newton, stipulated in his will, drawn January 15, 1844, that his entire 50 acres estate be left to his wife, Euphemia, ‘Except the Meeting House.’

It was on the 50 acres owned by Edward that the old Joseph Newton homeplace stood. However, no mention is made of when the Meeting House was built, or when the people first got together, and started holding religious services. We know that it was sometime between April 12, 1794, when Joseph Newton bought the land, and January 15, 1844, when Edward made reference to the Meeting House in his will.

There is considerable more history to the church, especially the part it played in the War Between the States, when the cannons at nearby Fort Fisher rattled the very foundations the Meeting House stood on, but that is a part of the mystery of its beginning. It is a romantic history indeed, and a history which easily stirs the imagination, and returns our thoughts to those days of yesteryear.

The historic old Federal Point Methodist Church will be abandoned soon because it is located in the area designated as a ‘safety zone’ for the Sunny Point Army Terminal. According to an agreement between the church and the government, the graveyard beside the church can still be used, and the government will provide maintenance for the burial ground.

At the present time, [1956] there are about 30 members of the church, and the pastor is Douglas Nathan Byrd, a ministerial student at High Point College. The present building was erected between 1910-12, and is located some 300 yards northeast of the site of the original Meeting House.

[Additional Resources]

July 1996 Newsletter (pdf) – Federal Point Historic Preservation Society
Newton Homesite and Cemetery
Oral History – Howard Hewett – Federal Point Methodist Episcopal Church

February Meeting – Jim McKee on the Wilmington Reserve Fleet

The Federal Point Historic Preservation Society will hold its monthly meeting on Monday, February 19, 2018 @ 7:30 PM at the Federal Point History Center, 1121-A North Lake Park Blvd., adjacent to Carolina Beach Town Hall.

Our speaker this month will be Jim McKee from Brunswick Town – Fort Anderson.

Jim will be speaking on the Wilmington Reserve Fleet which was one of eight National Defense Reserve Fleet’s (NDRF) anchorages established around the United States to store merchant vessels after World War II.

By 1951 the Wilmington Reserve Fleet was at full capacity, and was the second largest reserve fleet in the nation. There are thousands of people who still remember the ships moored in the Brunswick River, but have no idea why they were there or what their purpose was.

Jim McKee is the site manager at Brunswick Town/Fort Anderson State Historic Site in Winnabow, NC. He graduated from Greensboro College, has his Master’s from Southern New Hampshire University, and has worked for the National Park Service and the North Carolina Maritime Museum at Southport. He has been researching the Wilmington Reserve Fleet since 2007.

 

Masonboro Island

Masonboro Island is the largest undisturbed barrier island along the southern part of the North Carolina coast and is located approximately five miles southeast of Wilmington, in the most populous part of the North Carolina coast. The Masonboro site is bounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway to the west, Masonboro Inlet to the north, and Carolina Beach Inlet to the south.

The Masonboro Island component is the largest site, at 5,653 acres, within the NCNERR system and was designated in 1991. Eighty-seven percent of the 8.4 mile long island is covered with marsh and tidal flats. The remaining portions are composed of beach uplands and dredge material islands. Masonboro Island is an essentially pristine barrier island and estuarine system.

The various salinity patterns found in the extensive subtidal and intertidal areas along the sound side of the island support a myriad of estuarine species.

The habitats found within this site include subtidal soft bottoms, tidal flats, hard surfaces, salt marshes, shrub thicket, maritime forest, dredge spoil areas, grasslands, ocean beach, and sand dunes. Loggerhead and green sea turtles nest on the beaches, where seabeach amaranth plants grow on the foredunes.

All of these species are listed as threatened by the Federal Government. Species of concern are the black skimmers, Wilson’s plovers, and least terns that nest on the island. Sound sediments are home to two state watch list species – Hartmans Echiurid and a polycheate worm in the genus Notomastus.

The nutrient rich waters of Masonboro Sound are an important nursery area for spot, mullet, summer flounder, pompano, menhaden, and bluefish.

Island Reserve has more than 5,500 acres of natural barrier island habitat, estuary habitat and dredge spoil islands. Creation of the Reserve Masonboro Island was privately owned throughout most of the 20th century.

Increased development pressure prompted early conservation efforts by local citizens with the creation of the Society of Masonboro Island and involvement of the N.C. Coastal Land Trust during the 1980s.

Designation as the fourth component of the North Carolina National Estuarine Research Reserve occurred in 1991. Purpose of the Reserve This natural area is one of 10 sites that make up the North Carolina Coastal Reserve & National Estuarine Research Reserve.

Preservation of the Masonboro Island Reserve allows this coastal ecosystem to be available as a natural outdoor laboratory where scientists, students and the general public can learn about coastal processes, functions and influences that shape and sustain the coastal area.

Traditional recreational uses are allowed as long as they do not disturb the environment or organisms or interfere with research and educational activities.

The Masonboro Island Reserve is managed through a federal-state partnership between NOAA and the N.C. Division of Coastal Management to protect the island’s ecosystems for research and education. The support of ongoing stewardship of the site by a community of partner organizations is gratefully acknowledged. This site is also a dedicated state nature preserve.

The North Carolina Coastal Reserve & National Estuarine Research Reserve is part of the N.C. Division of Coastal Management, a division of the N.C. Department of Environment and Natural Resources.

 

Federal Point Methodist Church, St. Paul’s Methodist Church and the Federal Point Methodist Cemetery

From the Bill Reaves Files

June 17, 1917: The new Methodist Church at Federal Point, which had just been completed, was dedicated at 3:30 in the afternoon.  Rev. J .H. Shore, presiding elder of the Wilmington District of the N.C. Conference, delivered the sermon. It was said at the time -This church will stand as a fitting tribute to the memory of the handful of loyal Methodists who live in this section of the county.  Although the county in this vicinity is very sparsely settled, the people have erected a church that is a distinct credit to their community. WILM. STAR, 6-19-1917

April 3, 1938:  The family of A. W. Hewett gave the Federal Point Methodist Church a silver communion service in his memory. WILM. STAR, 4-7-1938

February 12, 1945: Construction of a new Presbyterian church in the downtown area of Carolina Beach was begun.  The building materials had been ordered and work was to begin as soon as they arrived. John McLeod, student at the Union Theological Seminary, Richmond, Va., preached for the Carolina Beach congregation in the Methodist Church building.  WILM. STAR,  2-9-1945.

April 21, 1946: The 4th annual Easter Sunrise Service was held at Carolina Beach.  The service began at sunrise, 5:30 A.M.  The sponsoring churches were Carolina Beach Baptist Church, St. Paul’s Methodist Church, Carolina Beach Presbyterian Church, Federal Point Methodist Church, All-Saints-By-The-Sea (Episcopal), Church of the Immaculate Conception (Catholic), and the Community Church.  WILM. EVENING POST, 4-20-1946

February 8, 1947: The pastors of Carolina Beach’s Protestant churches today were members of a new Carolina Beach Ministerial Association organized last night.  The Rev. Ben B. Ussery, pastor of the town’s Baptist church, was elected president, and the Rev. John D. McLeod, pastor of the Presbyterian Church, was named corresponding and recording secretary.  The other constitutions belonging to the association were the beach’s Methodist and Community Churches.  The Episcopal Church is expected to join also. At the organizational meeting, preliminary plans were laid for the resort’s fifth annual Easter Sunrise service.  WILM. POST, 2-8-1947

April 4, 1947: A three-act dramatization of THE FIRST EASTER MORNING was presented by the Young Adult Class of St. Paul’s Methodist Church.  The public was invited to this part of Carolina Beach’s pre-Easter observance program.  Included in the cast were: O’Neill Johnson, Homer Craver, Mike Bame, Jack White, Ryder Lewis, Chevis Faircloth, Jimmy Busch, Ernest Bame, Bunny Hines, Glenn Eaker, Rachel Bame, Ellen White, William McDougald, Edwin Carter, Sallie Faircloth and Ruby Knox.

Serving on the committees for the presentation were: Virginia Beach, Mrs. Odell Oldham, Mrs. Woodrow Hewett, A.L. Mansfield, Mrs. George Russ, Francis Ludwig and sons, Mrs. Edwin Carter, Mrs. Bunny Hines and Mrs. Sam Frisbee. WILM. NEWS, 4-2-1947

April 25, 1947: Plans were underway for the construction of an educational and recreational building for the young people of Carolina Beach.  The program was being handled by the Methodist Youth Fellowship committee, and all members were joining the campaign to raise funds.  A seafood supper on April 26th was the initial step in the fund raising.  The supper was to be held at Mrs. Reynolds Boarding House, operated by Mrs. R.W. Reynolds.  The building and facilities on the playground were to be located on the property of the Methodist Church. WILM.NEWS, 4-25-1947

November 12, 1947: Members of the Federal Point Methodist Church, Carolina Beach, elected their officers for the new year. The officers of the church were J. Otis Davis, Charge Lay Leader; the board of trustees included Dave Lewis, O.W. Davis and Mrs. J. N. Todd.  The communion steward was Mrs. J. N. Todd; membership committee, Mrs. Dave Lewis; pastoral relations committee, Mrs. G. C. Henniker; nominations committee, W. T. Lewis and Miss Beatrice Davis. Audit Committee, J. Otis Davis; golden cross, Mrs. O. W. Davis, board of missions and church extension, Mrs. J.O. Davis; committee  on evangelism, Mrs. W. T. Lewis; parsonage committee, Miss Beatrice Davis.  Stewards included J .O. Davis, W. T. Lewis, George H. Henniker, and Dave Lewis; parsonage trustees, Lee O. Davis. Officers of the Sunday School included Mrs. Ray Peterson, Dave Lewis, Mrs. J. O. Davis, Miss Beatrice Davis, W. T. Lewis.  WILM. STAR, 11-16-1947

February 6, 1948: Mayor A. P. Peay, of Carolina Beach, proclaimed today as a “Day of Prayer” at the resort.  This special day corresponded to a worldwide observance of a “world Day of Prayer.”  Special prayer services were conducted at St. Paul’s Methodist Church with a picnic lunch on the church grounds.  WILM. POST, 2-5-1948

October 24, 1965: St. Paul’s Methodist Church held its 22nd Annual Homecoming with a former pastor, the Rev. W. M. Wells, Jr., as guest minister.  During the past seven years, St. Paul’s had carried on an extensive modernization program.  During this period it had erected a new sanctuary, educational building and parsonage.

The church was organized on July 18, 1943, with 33 charter members.  The membership of the old Federal Point Methodist Church was absorbed in the new church.  Today the church membership was 317 and the church school enrollment was 178.  The present pastor was Rev. Thomas C. Fulcher, a native of West Virginia, who arrived in June, 1965 from Goldsboro.  WILM. STAR, 10-24-1965

February 8, 1985: Dow Road on Federal Point, one of New Hanover County’s biggest eyesores, was being cleaned up by many volunteers.  The project was dubbed “Operation Clean Sweep,” and it was organized by the New Hanover Clean Community Commission and a ranger from Carolina Beach State Park.  The two day cleanup started today when heavy equipment from the Sunny Point Military Ocean Terminal and Carolina and Kure Beaches were used to pick up large items dumped in the area.  The area near the Federal Point Cemetery at Dow Road and Ocean Boulevard were policed by Boy Scouts, Girl Scouts, Cub Scouts, Brownies and members of the Sand Fiddlers Club.  Other volunteers included firefighters from Carolina Beach, Kure Beach and Federal Point and residents of the Fort Fisher Air Station, as well as members of Community Watch and the Carolina Beach Homemakers Club.  Between 300 and 400 refrigerators and stoves as well as construction debris, sofas and mattresses had been dumped in the clean-up area.  St. Paul’s United Methodist Church was planning to fence off the cemetery to keep dumpers out.  WILM. STAR, 2-9-1985

 

Our WWI Soldier

Claude R. Pfaff – 1892 – 1983
2nd Lieutenant in the United States Army – 1918

[The History Center’s newest exhibit commemorating the Centennial of the United States entry into World War One opens this April. It includes the uniform of Claude R. Pfaff, generously loaned to us by member, Gerri Cohen]

Claude Pfaff was born in September of 1892, in Pfafftown, Forsyth County, North Carolina. Of Moravian heritage, he spent his formative years playing in the Bethania Moravian Band. After attending Bethania High School, he earned his bachelor’s degree from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (Class of 1918), during which he taught school at Mount Tabor as part of his matriculation.

On April 6, 1917, the United States formally entered World War I. Pfaff, like most young men due to graduate that spring, knew that he was likely to be drafted into the American military as soon as he was no longer a student. When the University offered to waive all final exams for anyone who volunteered for military service, he joined the United States Army.

Pfaff was sent to Camp Jackson, a major training and staging base established in 1917 near Columbia, South Carolina. Here, battalions were formed before being sent to join the fight in France.

As band Sergeant assigned to the 156th Depot Brigade, Pfaff played bugle for military ceremonial occasions as well as morale-lifting events at locations such as the large base hospital, the Red Cross Convalescent Home, the YMCA Hostess House, and the Liberty Theater, which seated 3,600 soldiers.

On September 26, he was transferred to Camp Sevier, Greenville, South Carolina, and in October, Pfaff was commissioned out of the ranks to Lieutenant.

With the armistice signed on November 11, 1918 the military quickly demobilized and Pfaff was honorably discharged on November 30, 1918 as a Second Lieutenant. Pfaff returned to civilian life, working first for the Colonial Motor Company and then as a salesman for the Realty Bond Company in Winston-Salem. He married Atha Wolff of Tobaccoville, NC, in June of 1919, and they had two sons, Harry and Bob, and one daughter, Geraldine. In later years Claude Pfaff worked as a retail coal dealer and then a dairy farmer before retiring to spend most of his time in Carolina Beach, fishing for king mackerel off the Fisherman’s Steel Pier.

The Local Connection

In the 1920s, when Pfaff was working for the Realty Bond Real Estate Company, the firm often sent its salesmen on vacation to Carolina Beach so that they would come back and tell their customers how wonderful the beach was – and, hopefully, sell more lots at Carolina Beach.

Throughout his years in Winston-Salem he most enjoyed coming down to Carolina Beach for the fall fishing season. His daughter, Gerri, says that Ellis Freeman “taught him how to fish and Ellis’s wife, Annie, taught Atha how to cook what he caught.”

In 1927, the grand Carolina Beach Hotel stood where the elementary school is today. Claude and Atha, who happened to be staying across the street one evening, sat on the porch and watched waiters mysteriously bring linens, silverware, and other valuables out of the hotel. The next night, as mysteriously, it burned to the ground.

In the early 1930s, Claude built a cottage near Carolina Beach Lake as a birthday present for Atha, who named it “The Lullaby” for the choruses of frogs that sang around it at night.

Gerri remembers that as soon as her school was out the family made the trip on Highway 421 from Winston to the beach and stayed the whole summer, until just before school began again in September.

Often during WWII, the Pfaff family ended up sharing the small cottage with a family of strangers. Because of the shortage of housing in the Wilmington area, property owners were required to rent out their houses in order to provide the families of the enlisted men due to ship out soon a week at the beach before they were separated. Only office space was exempt, so Atha designated one room an office.

In the 1960s, Claude and Atha retired from the dairy farm and spent from early spring to late fall at the cottage. Daughter Gerri says her father practically lived on the Fisherman Steel Pier, coming home only when his wife demanded he eat, and sleep at home.

In those years, he became a member of the Carolina Beach Presbyterian Church and an active member in the life of the local community, often sitting on the benches of the boardwalk and people-watching while Atha played bingo. Claude died in November of 1983, and Atha in September of 1986.

Gerri Cohen, their last surviving child, currently lives in Wilmington, but still uses the cottage in the summer, sharing it with an extended family of children, grandchildren and cousins. A member of the Federal Point Historic Preservation Society, she found out we were hoping to do an exhibit commemorating World War I and generously offered to lend us her father’s uniform for display.

To this day, many of Claude Pfaff’s descendants vacation at Carolina Beach, coming from such diverse residences as New Hampshire, Oklahoma, Virginia, and Florida.

 

World War I “The War to End All Wars”

In conjunction with our WWI exhibit, we will be publishing a short brochure on the causes and history of WWI.  The text is from American Political and Social History by Harold Underwood Faulkner, published in May 1937, by F.S. Crofts & Co., New York

Part III – WHY WE FOUGHT

While economic interests were tying the United States more closely to the Allied nations, organized propaganda was effectively used.  Propaganda agencies, both of the Triple Entente and of the Central Powers, exerted themselves to the utmost to influence public opinion, but in this the Entente were far more successful.

“Entente propaganda in the United States,” wrote Professor Hayes, “was even more general than that of the Teutons; it was also more adroit, more sympathetic, and more conformable to American prejudices and American wishes.”

Above all, it was more successful because Great Britain, through control of the cables and strict censorship, was able to color the news that reached America.  Honest, unbiased news largely disappeared from American papers after August, 1914.

With this great advantage to start with, propaganda was adroitly pushed through weekly reviews of the war distributed to hundreds of newspapers, moving pictures, articles in newspapers and magazines (written when possible by sympathetic Americans), contacts with influential men in all professions, speeches, debates, and lectures by American citizens-in brief, by every known method of influencing public opinion.

While the British talked of saving the world from barbarism and the French played up their contributions to American independence, famous men like James Bryce, highly respected in America, lent their names to the most incredible stories of German atrocities.

Against the skillful Allied propaganda the blundering efforts of Germany to subsidize the American press and influence American opinion made little progress and were eventually utterly discredited when, in 1915, President Wilson demanded the recall of the Austrian ambassador, Dumba, and the German attaches, von Papen and Boy-Ed.  These men had exceeded their official rights in pushing German interests in war time and were without doubt involved in plots to sabotage the production of munitions for the Allies.

That the presentation of the Entente case was far more efficient than that of the German, there can be no question.  This does not mean, however, that the United States was thus tricked into the war on one side.  It undoubtedly helped to build up sympathy for the Entente Powers and hostility toward Germany, but the continual blunders in the policy of the Central Powers were quite sufficient to accomplish that without other aid.

Furthermore, the traditions and culture of the American people were largely based on those of Great Britain; language, literature, and legal and constitutional institutions stemmed from the British Isles.  If this country was to enter the war at all – and there were many influences that appeared to be driving her inevitably into that course – the choice she made as to sides was the natural one.

Most Americans felt very definitely that they were fighting on the side of civilization and liberal institutions, an attitude enunciated by leaders in all walks of life and an attitude effectively and repeatedly expressed by Woodrow Wilson.

 

World War One – Part II

“The War to End All Wars”

In conjunction with our WWI exhibit, we will be publishing a short brochure on the causes and history of WWI.  The text is from American Political and Social History by Harold Underwood Faulkner, published May 1937, F.S. Crofts & Co., New York

WHY WE FOUGHT

Amazed at the blundering diplomacy that had made possible such a war, and confused as to the issues, the United States, following a century-old tradition, took an official position of neutrality.  In an appeal to the American people, “drawn from many nations, and chiefly from the nations at war,” President Wilson urged neutrality “in fact as well as in name during these days that try men’s souls.”

But the world was too small for this to be more than a pious hope.  At least four major influences were at work eventually to break down neutrality: (1) the heterogeneous character of the American population, (2) the increasing economic interest of the United States in the war, (3) the superior propaganda facilities of the allied Powers, and (4) the violations of neutral rights by the belligerents.

Of particular interest to politicians, propagandists, and national leaders was the reaction of the foreign-born population to the war.  While the older stock had emanated largely from the British Isles, at least 9,000,000 of the American population had been born in Germany or had one parent born there.  About one third of our population was foreign-born or of foreign-born parentage.

Of greater significance was the increasing economic stake of this country in the Allied cause.  The most pronounced early effect of the war upon America was a tremendous economic stimulation.

This is of particular importance because the nation, in the spring and summer of 1913, appeared to be sinking into the downward swing of an economic cycle, a trend that was quickly reversed by the European war.  Just as during the Napoleonic wars a hundred years earlier, Europe was too busily engaged in destruction to provide sufficient raw materials, and the United States became a source of all types of commodities, particularly foodstuffs and munitions.

The value of wheat exports, for example, rose from $39,000,000 in 1913, to $300,000,000 in 1917, and the value of munition exports from $5,000,000 to $803,000,000.  Production of cotton, foodstuffs, and minerals jumped forward, while the value of the exports of domestic merchandise almost tripled.

The excess value of exports over imports for the year ending June 30, 1914, was $435,800,000; for that ending in 1917, $3,567,800,000.  All this meant a sudden and widespread prosperity.  The United States profited enormously during the early years of the war, and her profits came almost entirely from the Allied Powers.

As Great Britain tightened the blockade around Germany and extended the contraband list, it became increasingly difficult to export to the Central Powers.  While American exports gravitated inevitably to Britain and her allies, these exports, owing to the diminutive size of the American merchant marine and the fact that Germany’s great merchant marine had been driven from the seas, were more than ever dependent upon British ships.

In another important way American economic life was changed by the World War and her interests tied more closely with those of the Triple Entente.  To finance the large-scale purchases, Europe shipped during the war close to a billion dollars in gold to the United States, and private citizens in Europe disposed of American securities to the value of two billion dollars.  When the war broke out, foreign investments in the United States were estimated at over $5,000,000,000, while American investments abroad amounted to at least $2,500,000,000, leaving the country a debtor to Europe by over 2,500,000,000.

Although Secretary of State, Bryan, held to the view that “money is the worst of all contrabands” and that loans to belligerent powers were “inconsistent with the spirit of neutrality,” the administration very early conveyed the impression that it would not oppose short-term credits that American bankers might extend to the belligerents, and a year later (August, 1915) that it would not oppose loans floated here.  The charge has often been made that this attitude was influenced by the desire to maintain economic prosperity in the United States, but the position of the administration was perfectly legal and in line with every precedent of international law.  Any other position at the time was hardly to be expected.

Beginning with the Anglo-French loan in October, 1915, private loans to the Entente Powers were floated here to the extent of some $1,500,000,000.  After we entered the war, the United States government extended credits to European governments amounting to over $10,500,000,000.  From a debtor nation, the United States almost overnight emerged as the great creditor nation of the world.  It is of more than passing significance that while the Allies floated here $1,500,000,000 in loans, Germany borrowed but $35,000,000, of which only $27,000,000 was outstanding when we entered the war.