Bill Reaves files: Federal Point/Carolina Beach/Kure Beach/Fort Fisher 1725-1994
– from the Wilmington Star, Wilmington News, Wilmington Post, Wilmington Dispatch, Wilmington Messenger
September 20, 1761
New Inlet was formed by a great storm, which visited the coast and lasted four days. This inlet grew in width and depth until large sailing vessels could pass through, and later steamships. VOL. I.
April 7, 1817
New Inlet as recorded in Civil War mapping records, 1864 (Cowles, Davis, Perry, & Kirkley)
Charles B. Gause deeded an acre of land on Federal Point to the United State government for the erection of a light house. The deed was recorded in New Hanover County Deed Book P, page 396
Captain Otway Burns brought the first steamboat to ply the Cape Fear River to Wilmington, passing through the New Inlet, coming from Beaufort, N.C. (The Scene Magazine, Wilmington, N.C.)
Cape Fear (Bald Head) Lighthouse was extinguished because a new lighthouse had been erected on Federal Point.
A study was begun to close the “New Inlet.” An open space of two miles between Federal Point and Smith Island beach where the beach was wearing away and where navigation was almost destroyed was given a great deal of attention. (Star 8-25-1877)
January 20, 1870
A report was made of the soundings on New Inlet Bar:
South slue on Bar – 9 1⁄2 feet.
North slue on Bar – 8 feet
On Rip – 9 1⁄2 feet (Star, 1-23-1870)
October 3, 1870
The fish oil works began operations at Fort Fisher as a sufficient number of little fatbacks had been obtained. The plant is operated by the Navassa Guano Company. About eighty barrels of the little fish were caught at one haul, and this was enough to yield six barrels of oil. Another haul was expected soon. (Star 10-5-1870)
June 9, 1871
The Rocks – Battery Buchanan – Zeke’s Island – Bald Head Island
Henry Nutt reported the completion of the work across Deep Inlet, the northern end of the finished super-structure resting firmly upon the highest part of the old stone work at a point designated upon the plan of the government works, near Zeke‘s Island , as the cross, thus effectually sealing up this inlet in a substantial and permanent manner.
When we take into consideration the formidable character of this work, an opening of about or over 500 feet, requiring a superstructure over 600 feet lineal by 20 feet wide and over 40 feet high, to shut out or stop a current of water passing in and out at a rate of 8 or 10 miles an hour, and all of this to be accomplished within the short space of about 8 months, and at a cost of within the sum of $100,000, the skill and industry of the officers in charge who designed the executed this great work, should receive the high appreciation of all. (Star, 6-11-1871)
June 11, 1871
Henry Nutt reported that the experiments for collecting drift sand and thereby elevating the beach in low parts of it, has not been made in consequence of financial deficiency. The first imperfect experiment has acted well, and accomplished all that was expected of it, elevating the beach above storm tide, thus proving the feasibility of building up the beach to any desired height by judicious treatment at small cost. (Star, 6-11-1871)
Between August 12th and Sept. 2nd, 1871
A most violent northeast gale visited the coast, producing some apprehension, according to Henry Nutt, for the safety of the government works in progress, and later during the month, much rainy weather prevailed, retarding operations somewhat. From the violence of the storm some of the unfinished cribs and preparatory timber was displaced, which involved some loss of time and labor to replace them in position again. This was successfully and speedily accomplished through the energy and skill of the local superintendent, and all is now going on well again. (Star, 9-6-1871)
September 2, 1871
A report issued on this date mentioned that the beach south of the government works was growing. The catch-sand fences had proven successful. Not a rail had been removed by the recent storm, and the brush had been completely covered with sand to the top of the fence, presenting an embankment 3 to 5 feet high, and far above the reach of any tide. This, and the weak parts of the beach where the wind had blown out trenches between the hills, was now being strengthened by a system of cultivating the “beach grass.”.
This grass bore transplanting well; none of that which was set out in July and August had died; but all growing and doing well, and it was suggested that transplanting could be done at any season of the year. Where the “beach grass” was planted, it had not only successfully resisted the blowing away of sand, but has already collected, it at many places, a foot or over in height. (Star, 9-8-1871)
Building ‘The Rocks’ – Click for more details
September 6, 1871
A report by Henry Nutt noted that the shoals in the vicinity of the government works had somewhat changed their position. Zeke‘s Island is somewhat changed, indicating an increased low-water area, while its high water area appears diminished. There is some appearance of an increased depth of water in the small inlet south of Zeke‘s Island. (Star, 9-6-1871)
September 30, 1871
It is perceptible that the water is shoaling in the vicinity of the government works on both sides of it and the outer shoals were evidently moving up in a body. The point of beach is extending northward and in front of the works. The inlet south of Zeke‘s Island seems not to be effected, as its depth of water is still maintained, while Zeke‘s Island itself is gradually wearing away, and is almost covered with high tides. (Star, 10-3-1871)
June – July 1873
The breakwater closing New Inlet between Zeke‘s Island and Smith‘s Island was practically completed, the distance being 4,400 feet. A Major Griswold was the officer in charge of the work. Completed in July. VOL. 1
In July, the 1873, the Federal Point jetty was begun, and by winter it was extended to 500 feet in length. The object of the works was primarily to serve as a deflector to the New Inlet currents. VOL. 1
July 4, 1873
The 4th of July holiday was celebrated by a group of 15 gentlemen who went down the river on the steam tugboat JAMES T. EASTON to Federal Point. They celebrated the 4th by raising a large flag and listening to an oration by A. T. London, Esq. Some of the officers and soldiers from the garrison at Smithville were present and the occasion was hugely enjoyed. While there, the group visited the New Inlet Dam or as we call the Rocks, and inspected them with Henry Nutt, who was chairman in charge of the work. (Star, 7-11-1873)
July 8, 1873
The first crib of the new breakwater at Federal Point was placed in position near the old fish house wharf. The second crib was placed in position of July 10th.
January 10, 1874
Since November 7th, 1873 four additional foundation cribs had been placed in position and filled with stone, extending the line of breakwater about 100 feet from the starting point. As fast as the work is leveled up to the line of high water, the beach makes up and now follows the breakwater about 100 feet from the starting point, and the whole of Federal Point is widening and elevating itself. It is generally concede that the breakwater should be extended 1,500 feet before stopping it. (Star, 1-14-1874)
October 7, 1874
Henry Koch, the young watchman at the government works on Zeke‘s Island about 26 years of age was accidentally drowned when he fell from a boat. His funeral was held in Wilmington from a house at the corner of 4th and Church Streets. Interment was in Oakdale Cemetery. (Star, 10-10-1874)
June 23, 1875
Colonel Craighill, U.S. Army Engineers, opened proposals for the extension of the Federal Point jetty at the New Inlet. This is an important work, being to close New Inlet by artificial means, and thus increase the depth of the river to the harbor of Wilmington, so as to admit the passage of large vessels. New Inlet was defended by the Confederate Fort Fisher during the late war.
Old records show that this inlet has been in existence for somewhat over a century, and that its origin was due as much (if not more) to the action of the wind upon the dry sand of the beach as to the tendency of the river currents to seek that outlet to the sea. Up to the summer of 1873 no steeps were ever taken to contract the area of outflow at New Inlet, although several breaks which had from time to time occurred below New Inlet had been successfully closed.
On July 1, 1873, the work for closing the space between Smith‘s Island and Zeke‘s Island had just been completed, and New Inlet remained the only passage to the sea except the mouth of the river. In July, 1873, the present Federal Point jetty was extended to 500 feet in length. The object of this work was primarily to serve as a deflector to the inlet currents, and not necessarily to form an integral part of any closing work which might afterwards be undertaken, the direction given it served to diminish the distance across the Inlet by only about 400 feet—thus leaving the distance across, from end of jetty to Zeke‘s Island , about 3,800 Feet. One of the results of this work has been the growth of Federal Point. (Star, 6-24-1875)
August 6, 1875
Col. Craighill, of the Corps of Engineers, U.S. Army, in his Baltimore office, opened the proposals for certain work at New Inlet, the ultimate purpose was the entire closing of the same. (Star, 8-10-1875)
August 24, 1875
It was reported that the contract for closing New Inlet Bar, below Wilmington, had been awarded by the government to Messrs. Bangs & Dolby, of Manlius, N.Y. at the following figures: For an apron, $20,00; for closing New Inlet to the low water mark, $188,000. The object was that of stopping the outflow to the ocean at New Inlet of the water of the Cape Fear River, and thus turn the entire volume out of the main bar or original mouth of the river, thus assisting in deepening it. (Star, 8-24-1875)
September 24, 1875
It was learned that Messrs. Bangs & Dolby were not going to close New Inlet but were to form the base for the accomplishment of that undertaking. Their contract was for the construction of a carpet or apron, which was to be built to stone four feet deep and from forty to seventy feet wide in the center of the current. The final closing of the inlet will require a further appropriation by the government. (Star, 9-24-1875)
September 25, 1875
Several large government flatboats were being constructed in Wilmington for use at the bar and river works at New Inlet in conveying stone to the scene of operations. (Star, 9-25-1875)
October 3, 1875
A large lighter or scow was being built at Messrs. Cassidey & Ross‘ shipyard for Messrs. Bangs & Dolby, who had the contract for constructing the stone “carpet” or “apron” at New Inlet. It was to be 100 feet long, 6 feet deep and 20 feet width of beam. (Star, 10-3-1875)
The land now Carolina Beach came into the hands of Bruce Freeman and remained in his family for many years. His family still owns land on Federal Point. (Star, 6-15-1941)
January 3-4, 1876
Justice Cassidey spent two days in Federal Point Township, where he went in the capacity of Special Commissioner of the Court of Claims, for the purpose of taking depositions in the cases of parties whose property was destroyed by the Federal troops during the military operations in that section towards the close of the late war. This testimony was to be forwarded to Washington, D.C. to be used by the Court of Claims in connection with the cases alluded to. (Star, 1-6-1876)
January 12, 1876
The steam-tug ROYAL ARCH, Capt. Davis, arrived from Georgetown, S.C., and was designed to be employed at the government works now in progress at New Inlet. (Star, 1-13-1876)
Capt. Charles B. Phillips, engineer in charge of the work on the New Inlet Dam (Rocks) was succeeded by Capt. Henry Bacon, of the U.S. Engineer Corps. Capt. Phillips died in Norfolk, VA, about five years later, in June, 1881. VOL. I.
January 12, 1876
A man landed at Zeke‘s Island, near the government works (Rocks) in a boat in which he had come all the way from Buffalo, New York. The boat was about 18 feet in length. (Star 1-18-1876)
January 30, 1876
A corn vessel went ashore on the beach between Zeke‘s Island and Bay Beach, near the government works (Rocks). She was full of water and the surf was breaking over her. It was thought that she was the schooner SNOW STORM, Capt. Rhodes, of Elizabeth City, N.C. (Star, 2-1-1876)
January 31, 1876
The tugboat J.MURRAY, of the fleet employed by the contractors on the government works at New Inlet, ran on a log and carried away her stern-post and rudder, and was then towed up to Wilmington for repairs. (Star, 2-1-1876)
January 23, 1876
Capt. C.B. Phillips, who recently resigned the position of engineer of the government works (Rocks), as succeeded by Capt. Henry Bacon, of the U.S. Engineer Corps. (Star, 1-23-1876)
November 17, 1876
Messrs. Bangs & Dolby were awarded the contract by the government for supplying 45,000 cubic yards of stone necessary to the further prosecution of the work for the contraction of New Inlet. It was their plan to quarry the rock from the quarry near the river. (Star, 11-17-1876)
December 27, 1876
(Advertisement) – LABORERS WANTED. 300 laborers wanted at the U.S. government works, Magnolia Tree Quarry, Cape Fear River. The laborers must provide themselves with blankets; cooking utensils and good quarters will be furnished. BANGS & DOLBY, Contractors. (Star, 12-27-1876)
A terrible gale broke over and washed the beach between New Inlet and Bald Head Island for a distance of 3,000 feet, leaving the entire area covered with water about one foot below ebb tide, and there was made a narrow passage of greater depth, which became known ―Philips‘s Inlet,‖ through which at high tide some very light draft vessels could pass. By November, 1879, the passage was closed at low tide. (Star, 7-11-1879)
April 4, 1877
Mr. Armstrong Hall, engineer of the steam tug ROYAL ARCH, presented a petrified lobster and a petrified oyster for inspection by the MORNING STAR newspaper. They were unearthed recently on the Cape Fear River at the ‘Magnolia Tree’ quarry, where rock was being quarried for the government works at New Inlet. The lobster and oyster were found at a depth of 18 feel below the surface of the earth, and they were almost perfect in shape. (Star, 4-4-1877)
January 7, 1878
The steam-tug ORLANDO arrived from Baltimore, which had been purchased by George Z. French, Esq., who had the contract for the present year for closing up New Inlet, and it was designed to take the place of the tug ROYAL ARCH in towing flats to and from the government works at New Inlet and the rock quarry near Rocky Point. Mr. French had four or five new flats constructed for this purpose. Capt. James Williams of Wilmington was in command of the ORLANDO. (Star, 1-8-1878)
It was reported that from October 20, 1877, 11,129 cubic yards of stone had been placed in position at New Inlet by the contractors, Bangs & Dolby. The stone was purchased at Rocky Point, N.E. Cape Fear River. VOL. I.
Col. Craighill suspended work on the closing of New Inlet due to the need of funds from Washington, D.C. VOL. I
An appropriation of $160,000 was made by Congress for the government work at New Inlet.
Three hundred men were wanted for work at the Excelsior Quarries near Rocky Point to work quarrying stone for the New Inlet work. Steady work for a year was promised. VOL. I
[Editor note 2015: re: French Brothers, Excelsior Plantation and Quarries, Rocky Point:
“When the channel of the Cape Fear River was deepened, the rock that filled the new inlet below Wilmington came from the Rocky Point section on the North East Cape Fear River. When completed in 1875, it was called “The Rocks.””
August 5, 1878
Messrs. French & Dolby of Wilmington were awarded the contract for supplying about 50,000 cubic yards of stone for continuing the work for the closure of the New Inlet, on the eastern side of the river below Wilmington. Their bid was $1.75 per cubic yard. (Star, 8-8-1878; 8-13-1878)
August 11, 1878
(Advertisement) – 300 Men Wanted at Excelsior Quarries at Rocky Point to work quarrying stone for the U.S. Government Works (New Inlet). Steady work for a year. Thomas Williams was the superintendent. (Star, 8-11-1878)
September 10, l878
A large number of blacks left New Bern, N.C. for Rocky Point, N.C. where they were to be employed by the U.S. government in getting out stone from the quarries to be put in New Inlet. John C. Thomas of Wilmington was to be one of the overseers. (Star, 9-10-1878)
The recent storm carried away about 50 feet of the breakwater at New Inlet on the Zeke‘s Island side. (Star 12-11-1878)
March 21, 1879
Mr. Thomas Williams of Pender County was the sub-contractor for supplying the stone for the use of the government in filling up New Inlet. The rock was shipped from Rocky Point quarry, where 400 men were employed removing the rocks. (Star, 3-21-1879)
June 14, 1879
Mr. Henry Nutt, chairman of the Committee on River and Bar Improvement, informed the Wilmington Newspaper, THE MORNING STAR, that New Inlet was closed. It was his honor to be the first to walk across this day, at 12 noon, dry-footed, from Federal Point to Zeke‘s Island, a distance of nearly a mile, in the company of his grandson, Wm., M. Parsley. When he was about half way across, he was saluted with three cheers from about 60 laborers engaged in throwing in stone. (Star 6-20-1879)
June 26, 1879
Notice was given to all mariners that the gap in the dam at New Inlet, mouth of Cape Fear River, North Carolina, had been filled, thus closing the whole distance between Zeke‘s Island and Federal Point. The buoys marking the channel of New Inlet were to be removed. (Star, 7-11-1879)
June 26, 1879
The Office of the Lighthouse Board, Washington, D.C., announced that the buoys marking the channel of New Inlet would be removed, now that the gap in the dam at New Inlet had been filled, this closing the whole distance from Zeke‘s Island and Federal Point. (Star, 7-11-1879)
September 6, 1979
Proposals for continuing operations on the work for closure of New Inlet were received and opened by Col. Craighill, Engineer, U.S. Army, Baltimore, MD. The contract was awarded to Messrs. Ross & Pennypacker, of Wilmington, at $2.24 per ton.
In order to finish the dam at New Inlet to high water mark and protect it against the force of the waves, it was proposed to cover the top and the sea slope to low water mark with heavy flat stones, so as to make the top surface and slopes smooth and even. The covering needed will be about 3,500 feet in length, and the average thickness of the stone will be about 18 inches. It is estimated that about 10,000 tons of granite will be required. (Star, 9-19-1879)
September 15, 1879
The Light House Board gave notice that in consequence of the closing of the New Inlet, at the mouth of the Cape Fear River, North Carolina, the light on Federal Point would be discontinued on and after January 1st, 1880. (Star, 9-23-1879)
November 11, 1879
George Z. French, Esq., completed his contract with the U.S. Engineer Department in furnishing stone for the closing of New Inlet. He furnished 20,000 tons in three months. (Star, 11-11-1879)
November 24, 1879
The first loads of heavy granite rock for the sea-face and capping of the dam (Rocks) at New Inlet reached Wilmington on the Wilmington, Columbia and Augusta Railroad. A derrick-scow is being repaired for the placing of the granite in position.
The granite was from the old Grandy quarries, in the vicinity of Columbia, S.C. (Star, 11-28-1879, 10-3-1879)
The Bald Head Lighthouse was re-lighted, because the New Inlet was now closed. The Federal Point Lighthouse was found to be useless. VOL. I
Capt. John W. Harper, master of the river steamer PASSPORT was the first to refer to the New Inlet Dam as the “Rocks.” He was also the first to take excursion passengers to the point of interest.
August 17, 1880
The steamer PASSPORT was to make her last trip of the season to the “Rocks” at New Inlet. Capt. John W. Harper, master of the steamer, stated that “the tide will exactly suit for a good day’s fishing at this point, being low water about 12 noon”. (Star, 8-13-1880)
February 5, 1881
The government works (The Rocks) at New Inlet were reported to be covered with a solid sheet of ice, from Federal Point to Zeke’s Island. The jetties were similarly coated. (Star, 2-5-1881)
May 13, 1881
The steam-tug WM.NYCE is towing the government barges to and from New Inlet while the ORLANDO was being raised and put in order. (Star, 5-13-1881)
August 23, 1881
The lighthouse at Federal Point was destroyed by fire late this afternoon. This lighthouse had not been in use since the closing of New Inlet, but it was occupied as a dwelling by Mr. Taylor, the former keeper. It was a wooden structure, situated about one mile from the site of Fort Fisher. (Star, 8-24-1881)
January 18, 1882
The headquarters of Mr. Henry Bacon, Assistant Engineer in charge of the government works, was changed from Smithville to Wilmington. (Star, 1-18-1882)
May 10, 1883
A party of gentlemen visited the large fishery of Messrs. W.E. Davis and Sons, on Zeke‘s Island. There were four or five families residing on the island, and there were six houses.
A pen was visited in which 600 terrapins of all sorts and sizes were confined. There was also a fine stock of poultry, including some 150 chickens, to say nothing of ducks, geese, etc. The fish traps were visited, and the Messrs. Davis explained their workings. They were fished at 5 a.m. and again at 5 p.m. Next the fertilizer establishment was inspected. Here all the refuse fish, such as cannot be sold, are cut up into fragments, put in a sort of press constructed for the purpose and all the oil extracted , after which the fragments were gathered up, spread out on a large platform to dry and are then bagged and sold for fertilizing purposes.
A railroad had been constructed from the ocean on one side of the island to the river on the other, and on and on his fish, after being taken from the traps, are hoisted from the sharpies by a derrick and placed in a car, are transported to the other side of the island and dumped into boats in the river. (Star, 5-12-1883)
May 13, 1883
The steamboat MINEHAHA was to make a trip to Federal Point on Sunday morning and would leave the Wilmington Wharf at 9 a.m. sharp The master of the vessel was Joseph Bisbee. (Star, 5-12-1883)
May 17, 1883
Two members of the Federal Point Fishing Club, organized last season, went down the “The Rocks” at New Inlet and succeeded in landing 84 sheepshead. This was considered a fine day‘s sport. (Star, 5-19-1883)
July 21, 1883
The storehouse of Messrs. W.E. Davis & Son, who had extensive fisheries in the vicinity, was burned to the ground. The fire destroyed all their nets, seines and other material. The building adjoining the storehouse was pulled down to save it. The fire created a big excitement among the fishermen and others on the Point, who with a whole ocean of water before them, could not stop the devouring element in its course. (Star, 7-24-1883)
July 21, 1883
The storehouse of Messrs. W.E. David & Son was destroyed by fire at Federal Point. The Davis Company owned large fisheries in the vicinity. Destroyed in the fire were all their nets, seines and other materials, which was to prove detrimental during the upcoming fish season. The fire could be seen from Smithville across the river. Another building adjacent to the storehouse had to be pulled down. An employee, Mr. Williamson, asleep in a room, escaped unhurt. The fire created a big excitement among the local fishermen and others on the Point. The Davis family estimated their losses at about $4,500 with about half covered by insurance. (Star, 7-27-1883)
August 9, 1883
The contracts for furnishing the necessary material on the improvements to the Cape Fear River were opened. The following were the lowest bidders: For rattling and spun yarn, John C. Springer and N. Jacobi; for brush and cane, Ross & Lara; for stone, G.Z. French; for the building of five scows, Geo. R. Sumerell. (Star, 8-10-1883)
August 15, 1883
The steamer MINNEHAHA offered a moonlight excursion to Federal Point on Wednesday night, August 15th. There was to be a sheepshead supper at Mayo‘s Place, also music and dancing. The round trip fare was 50 cents. She would leave the Wilmington wharf at the 8 o‘clock sharp. (Star, 8-14-1883)
Building ‘The Rocks’
Proposals for furnishing the necessary material for carrying on the improvements to the Cape Fear River, especially New Inlet Dam, were opened at the office of Major Henry Bacon, engineer in charge. The lowers bidders were: for brush and cane and stone – Messrs. Ross & Lara; for the building of five scows, George R. Sumerell. VOL. I.
August 14, 1883
A moonlight excursion was offered on the steamboat PASSPORT to Federal Point. Music and dancing, Sheepshead Supper at Mayo‘s Place. Fare for round trip 50 cents. One hour at Federal Point. John W. Harper and George N. Harriss, Managers. (Star, 8-14-1883)
A terrible hurricane struck the lower Cape Fear area. The destruction of Messrs. W.E. Davis & Sons fishery on Zeke‘s Island was fearful. Their loss was heavy, among which were 2200 terrapins waiting for shipment to the North, 13 gill-nets, 3 fish sheds, 25 barrels of salt mullets, 30 sacks of salt, one new boat, a lot of fish stands. etc. VOL. I.
September 27, 1883
Messrs. W.E. Davis & Son, at their Federal Point fishery, caught over 400 large drum at one haul, averaging 40 pounds each; being pronounced the largest haul of drum on record. (Star, 9-28-1883)
October 4, 1883
Messrs. Ross & Lara, to whom the contract was awarded for supplying stone, brush and other necessary material for filling up or closing what is known as “Corncake Inlet,” near what was formerly New Inlet, were busy making preparation to begin the work.
Their base of operation was at the Keystone Quarry, at Gander Hall, opposite Orton. A short railroad track was under construction from the quarry to the river, about 1 1⁄2 miles long. A steamer named HAROLD was due soon to do the towing of the rock to the work site. Mr. Henry Bacon, Sr., a civilian employee of the U.S. Engineers, was building a large wharf at Gander Hall to facilitate the work. (Star, 10-4-1883)
October 15, 1883
The steam tug, HAROLD, Capt. Crawford, from Jacksonville, FL, arrived in the Cape Fear River. She was to be used by Messrs. Ross & Lara, the contractors at work at filling up “Corncake Inlet” with stone and brush. (Star, 10-16-1883)
October 21, 1883
Messrs. Ross & Lara, contractors, were receiving shipments of lumber at Gander hall for the erection of “shanties” for the men working in the Keystone quarry at that place. Work on the short line of railroad was also underway. (Star, 10-21-1883; 11-15-1883; 10-9-1882)
The Federal Point Club prospected on Zeke‘s Island, examining the dam, fish weir, etc., and they traveled down as far as Corn-Cake Inlet. (Star, 10-12-1882)
(advertisement) 100 Good Quarry Hands for Government Work at Keystone Quarries on Cape Fear River, 14 miles below Wilmington. Ross & Lara, Contractors (Star, 2-3-1884)
[Editor note, 2015: Keystone Quarry was located within Gander Hall [300 acres]. The quarry rail-line and loading pier on east shore of Cape Fear River, ran along what was later used by Capt Harper for the Carolina Beach Landing Pier and the Shoo-Fly Line.]
May 14, 1884
(advertisement) – FOR RENT – Until November 1, 1884, or longer, two very nice Cottages, at the Rocks, (Federal Point), Kitchen, Water, etc. to each. All in No. 1 order and ready for immediate use. (Star, 5-14-1884)
May 28, 1884
Mr. A. S. Lara, of the firm of Ross & Lara, contractors for the work of closing Corncake Inlet, at the mouth of the river, who had been visiting at his home in Stuanton, VA.for about two months had returned. (Star, 5-30-1884)
June 21, 1884
The locomotive used by Messrs. Ross & Lara on their railroad from the rock quarry to the river, in supplying rock to close up Corncake Inlet, was returned to the quarry after it was enlarged to suit the work by Messrs. Hart, Bailey & Co.’s foundry in Wilmington. (Star, 6-24-1884)
July 11, 1884
R.G. Ross, contractor, killed a rattlesnake at the rock quarry near Gander Hall, below Wilmington, which is said to have had 16 rattles. It is described as being as large as a large man‘s leg. (Star, 7-11-1884)
July 27, 1884
“The “Rocks,” at what was formerly known as New Inlet, was now a favorite resort for fishermen. (Star, 7-27-1840)
It was reported that the “rocks” was a favorite resort for fishermen. VOL. I
A little girl from Wilmington was hurt at the “Rocks” when she jumped into some broken glass with her bare feet. She was given first aid by some nearby fishermen and then carried to the Mayo House, a resort hotel operated at the “Rocks.” During the same month two young ladies from Wilmington were rescued from drowning while swimming at the “Rocks.” VOL. I
August 16, 1884
During a severe storm at the “Rocks,” lightning struck the flag pole at the government wharf at Corncake Inlet. A fisherman nearby was severely shocked and one of his hands badly bruised when he fell down. He was holding a metal-ribbed umbrella at the time which acted as a conductor. VOL. I
Two new contracts were awarded for supplying stone for the further closing of what was known as Corncake Inlet. A total of 30,000 tons of stone was still required. VOL. I
September 26, 1884
The new work at Federal Point was progressing rapidly. The dam was now two miles long, reaching from Zeke‘s Island to the Big Marsh, 25,000 tons of stone had already been used, and the dam, on an average, was about one foot above low water. The appropriation made by the last Congress would not quite complete the work. Mr. Henry Bacon believed that when the present dam was completed, a sandbar would form between it and the ocean, the same as at New Inlet, and the result would be the washing out of the bar at the mouth of the river to 18 or 10 feet. (Star, 10-14-1884)
A correspondent in Washington, D.C. wrote: “The new work is progressing rapidly. The dam is two miles long, reaching from Zeke‘s Island to the Big Marsh, 25,000 tons of stone had already been used, and the dam, on the average, is about one foot above low water. The appropriations made by the last Congress will not quite complete the work.” VOL. I
October 15, 1884
The New Inlet Dam was in perfect condition. The sand beach which since the completion of the dam had been extending on the site of Carolina Shoals from near Fort Fisher towards the head of Smith‘s Island had widened and it extended nearly to the island, a distance of nearly two miles, leaving a gap of less than half a mile over shoal water between the new bank and Smith‘s Island. (Star, 10-17-1884)
January 19, 1885
The steamer WOODBURY, belonging to the government works, which went ashore at Federal Point during the late gale got off on the next high tide and went up to Wilmington. (Star, 1-20-1885)
May 18, 1886
(advertisement) “THE ROCKS,” FORT FISHER. This delightful 1 family resort, unsurpassed on the entire Atlantic Coast for River, Bay, Sound and Ocean Sailing. Fishing and Boating, is now open for the accommodation of boarders by the day, week or month. Steamers PASSPORT and LOUISE ply daily between Wilmington and “The Rocks.” Address all communications, N. F.Parker, “The Rocks,” Care of Capt. John W. Harper, Wilmington, N.C. (Star, 5-18-1886)
July 7, 1886
A license was issued to N. F. Parker to retail spirituous liquors at “The Rocks.” (Star, 7-7-1886)
January 12, 1888
Capt. James Wells, who has charge of Messrs. W.F. Davis & Sons fishery on Zeke‘s Island, was seriously wounded while hunting. His gun fell and both barrels were discharged and he was wounded in the left thigh with the flesh torn from the bone. While hunting he was accompanied by Mr. Willie Mayo of the “Rocks”. Capt. Wells was taken to Wilmington on the steamer LOUISE and then taken to his home where he received the necessary surgical attention. (Star 1-13-1888)
May 8, 1888
A license was granted to A.B. Peterson to retail spirituous liquors in the Mayo House at the ‘Rocks’ for six months. (Messenger, 5-8-1888)
May 17, 1888
A large party of gentlemen got off the steamer PASSPORT at “The Rocks” at 6:45 A.M., and they had fine sport catching sheepshead, pig fish and blackfish. Mr. W.E. Mayo had opened the hotel at “The Rocks” and was supplying the guests with all kinds of seafood, soft crabs, fish, clams, etc. “She certainly knows how to make it pleasant for all who pay her a visit.” (Messenger, 5-18-1888)
August 21, 1888
The old tram road at the Ross rock quarry on the Cape Fear River had been purchased by a Mr. Williams, of Red Springs, N.C. The iron was to be used in building a road from Red Springs to McNeill‘s. All of the wheelbarrows, spades, shovels, drills, etc., were to be sold in a few days at auction. (Messenger, 8-21-1888)
August 28, 1888
All the implements from the old Ross rock quarry railroad, viz: 75 wheelbarrows, 20 steel drills, 7 iron bars, 50 drill hammers, 40 pickaxes, 75 shovels, 20 sets of harness, grindstones, and a large quantity of other goods pertaining to railroad building, were to be auctioned at Davis‘ fish house today. (Messenger, 8-26-1888)
April 26, 1889
Capt. B.L. Perry, the former proprietor of the Purcell House in Wilmington, and the Atlantic Hotel at Beaufort, NC, was to take charge of the hotel at Carolina Beach. Twenty rooms were to be added to the hotel, which in addition to the eight cottages being built, would accommodate a large number of visitors. A line of hacks will be established between Carolina Beach and Fort Fisher, a distance of 5 miles, giving ample opportunity to everyone who desired to fish at the “Rocks.” (Star, 4-26-1889)
August 31, 1889
A party of fishermen reported great luck at the Corn Cake Rocks and in the vicinity of Federal Point. They camped on the shell banks and caught shrimp in the vicinity to bait with. They caught about two barrels of tine sheepshead and the finest pig fish ever seen on this coast. Many of the sheepshead were so heavy they broke off the hook before they could be gotten to the top. One of the pig fish caught was 12 inches long, and another fisherman landed a rock fish that measured 2 1/2 feet in length. Pig fish and sheepshead also bit well at New Inlet Rocks.
The fishermen while near Buzzard’s Bay obtained some very fine oysters and a royal roast was consequently enjoyed. The oysters of Buzzard’s Bay are large and fat. It was a sure bet that the fishermen would return at an early date. (Messenger, 8-31-1889)
April 18, 1890
Mrs. W.E. Mayo, who kept the hotel at the “Rocks” for many years, was to have charge of the hotel at Carolina Beach this season. (Star, 4-18-1890)
April 12, 1891
Mr. Henry Bacon, Sr. died at his residence in Wilmington. He was born in Natick, Mass, in 1822. His engineering career commenced in New England, and later on he was appointed to the charge of harbor work on the Great Lakes. From there Mr. Bacon came to the Cape Fear River at the request of Col. Craighill in January, l876, just at the commencement of the lower river improvements. For a few years he lived at Smithville, coming to Wilmington about 1889.
For over 15 years he had charge of the Cape Fear River improvements to which he devoted the best years of his life. The work under his charge had been very successful the depth of the river having been increased gradually from 7 1/2 to 12 feet, then to 16 feet, and work had already begun on a depth of 20 feet. He was survived by his widow, two daughters and four sons. Funeral will be held from the First Presbyterian Church in Wilmington. (Star, 4-17-1891)
May 28, 1892
The contract for furnishing stone for the jetties and other government work on the Cape Fear River, was awarded to the Carolina Brown Stone Company, of Sanford, N.C. (Messenger, 5-29-1892)
January 12, 1893
The New Hanover Transit Company had leased the well known “Rocks” and proposed to make it both accessible and a pleasant place to visit for all who indulge in the sport of fishing. The “Rocks” had always been a good fishing spot, but hard to reach, and an uncomfortable and dreary place to remain overnight.
Capt. J.W. Harper and his company planned to build a new wharf and open a small but clean and neat house, where good meals would always be served and comfortable quarters found at night. The new house was to be called “Hotel Fisher,” and was to be opened after May 1st. (Messenger, 1-13-1893)
January 21, 1893
Capt. John W. Harper, of the steamer WILMINGTON, reported that at Fort Fisher where the river is two miles wide, ice extended from shore to shore. This was the first time since 1857, according to the oldest inhabitants, that the Cape Fear River had frozen over in that vicinity. VOL 11.
February 4, 1893
The New Hanover Transit Company was building their dock at the “Rocks,” preparatory for the summer season. Mr. Wesley Corbett had the contract. (Messenger, 2-4-1893)
The steamer WILMINGTON ran ashore at “The Rocks.” The tugboat ALEXANDER JONES took her passengers off and carried them on to Southport. The WILMINGTON got off without assistance on the high tide. VOL 11.
April 9, 1893
The New Hanover Transit Company completed their new wharf at The Rocks, and everything was now “safe and sound” for all who visited that resort when they pursued their piscatorial pursuits. It was to be remembered that at this resort “the fish were as hungry as wolves, as is shown by their savage manner in which they attack the shrimps and sand-fiddlers.”
The steamer WILMINGTON, with Capt. “Baseball” Harper in command, left Wilmington daily at 9:30 a.m., returning in the afternoon, stopping at The Rocks both ways, and this gave the anglers about five hours for indulging in their great sport.
About May 1st, the overnight accommodations were to be ready for those who wished to spend a night or two at The Rocks. (Wilm Star, 4-9-1893)
May 15, 1893
The Hotel Oceanic, at Carolina Beach, opened for the entertainment of the public. The building had been thoroughly repaired, and supplied with new furniture, bedding and other necessary equipment. The hotel was under the general supervision of Mrs. W.E. Mayo.
A band of music had been engaged, the bath houses had been refitted and new bathing suits provided. Three trips to the Beach daily was to be made by the steamers WILMINGTON and CLARENCE.
The steamer CLARENCE was also to make daily trips to the Hotel Fisher at “The Rocks,” which was soon to open under the management of Mr. Oscar Sorensen. At this fisherman’s paradise a person could spend five hours and return in the afternoon, or one could spend one or more nights with host Sorensen and have time to haul out trout, sheepshead and flounders. (Star, 4-21-1893)
May 26, 1893
Wilmingtonians who have stopped with Mr. Sorrensen, the manager of the Hotel Fisher, at The Rocks, speak in high praise of the “good cheer” he provides for his guests. (Star, 5-26-1893)
October 13, 1893
During the terrible hurricane very minor damage was done to the buildings, bath houses or residences on Carolina Beach, with the exception of fences, which were generally blown down or washed away. A few of the residences had their doors forced open and some panes of glass were blown in. The only damage of consequence was to the railroad track which had been badly washed at several points between the beach and the river. The pier leading out into the river was, however, all gone, except the pilings; the entire superstructure with ties and rails, having been washed away.
The storm raged with great fury at “The Rocks.” Six small cottages were demolished and swept away, the wharf being destroyed, and much damage was done to the fishing boats and nets. Mr. Hans A. Kure lost seines, nets, boats, and other articles belonging to his fishery. (Star, 10-15-1893)
October 14, 1893
During the recent terrible storm, fears were entertained for the safety of two men in charge of the Government Wharf at Corncake Inlet. When last seen they were on the wharf and the waves were washing over it. They were surrounded on all sides by water. The men are the watchman, Mr. George W. Hewett, and Nelson McCoy, the colored cook. (Messenger, 10-14-1893)
October 15, 1893
Hans A. Kure was advertising that he had lost the following: LOST, during the storm Friday, at “The Rocks,” two large seines, sixteen gill nets forty meshes deep, eight boats and a number of gears belonging to my fishery. Also one “pike” net. (Star, 10-15-1893)
May 31, 1895
A wharf was to be erected at the “Rocks” in place of the old one which was carried away in a recent storm. (Star, 5-31-1895)
May 31, 1895
It was announced that a new wharf was to be erected at the “Rocks” in place of the old one that was carried away. The wharf was needed by the steamer WILMINGTON to land fishing parties and to facilitate the government work on that part of the river. (Star, 5-31-1895)
About 50 feet of sand at the upper end of the breakwater dam closing New Inlet had washed out. The break was being repaired by filling in with bags of sand. Vol. II
Capt. D.S. Bender, in charge of the government work, reported that it would require ten to fifteen days more to finish the repairing of the New Inlet Dam (“Rocks”). The break occasioned by a recent storm was not only being made good, but the dam was being further strengthened, and extended at the east end so as to extend well over on the sand reaches. About 25 men were on this work. (Star, 3-5-1897)
May 12, 1898
A number of men from Fort Macon, N.C. went down the river on the steamer WILMINGTON on their way to Corn Cake Inlet. They were to erect a battery to defend the inlet which makes in at the upper end of Smith’s Island. The inlet was large enough now to admit small steamers such as torpedo boats and torpedo boat destroyers. (Messenger, 5-13-1898; Dispatch, 5-12-1898)
September 21, 1899
The stone dam (Rocks) between Zeke’s Island and the Big Marsh was damaged by the recent hurricane. The force of the waves knocked the coping to the dam down in several places. Allen Clemmons with a small force of eight men had been at work the past week, putting the rocks back in place. (Messenger, 9-22-1899)
January 10, 1900
The government was to use the rock which was dug up in dredging the Wilmington shoal in making repairs to the “rock dam” (The Rocks) at the mouth of the river. (Dispatch, 1-10-1900)
May 17, 1902
A sturgeon, 7 feet long and weighing over 300 pounds, was caught at “The Rocks” and taken to Wilmington on the steamer WILMINGTON. The fish was a monster. (Dispatch, 5-17-1902)
March 1, 1902
Capt. John W. Harper was contemplating the erection of a pier head at “The Rocks” near Fort Fisher. He gave the contract to Mr. A.J. Robbins, of Southport, and the work was to be completed by April 15th. (Dispatch, 3-8-1902)
August 12, 1905
R.H. Pickett and Roger Moore laid claim to 20 acres of vacant and unappropriated land in Federal Point Township, known as Zekes Island, which land was bounded by the water of the Cape Fear River and New Inlet. Entered in the office of the Register of Deeds of New Hanover County, Entry No. 1901. (Messenger, 8-13-1905)
August 28, 1905
Through his attorneys, Messrs. Davis & Davis, Capt. J. Alvin Walker made a formal protest against Messrs. Pickett and Moore who were claiming Zeke‘s Island property. The property was claimed by the Walker heirs and they resisted the occupation of the island by Messrs. Pickett & Moore. (Star, 8-29-1905)
March 28, 1906
The entry of Zeke‘s Island by Messrs. Roger Moore and R. H. Pickett, of Wilmington, was upset at a hearing in Brunswick County Superior Court in behalf of the Walker heirs, the original claimants.
April 20, 1906
The recent storm resulted in more damage to the government breakwater known as ‘the Rocks.’ A member of the Corps of Engineers, following an inspection, stated that the damage done was almost beyond comprehension. There was scarcely 100 feet of the New Inlet dam which was not damaged.
In the two dams, the New Inlet Dam, and the Swash Deference Dam, there were a number of breaks from 50 feet to about 500 feet. The entire stone coping of the New Inlet dam was completely destroyed by the terrific force of the wind and waves. The stone coping was composed of tremendous stone blocks weighing from 2 to 6 tons each. Some of these were thrown by the wind from 25 to 50 feet from their original position. The only thing that saved the Swash Defense Dam from being completely obliterated was the fact that the stone coping was cemented and it resisted the attacking power of wind and wave.
Prior to the storm, $60,000 worth of improvements had recently been added to the work on the dams, and all of this will prove a total loss as it will all have to be fixed again. The stone coping alone on the New Inlet Dam would cost $50,000 to replace. (Dispatch, 9-20-1906)
A launch CLIFTON was making regular runs from Wilmington to ‘The Rocks’ for fishermen.
July 25, 1906.
The launch CLIFFORD was to be used for fishing expeditions from Wilmington to ‘The Rocks’. Anglers would be taken down in the morning and returned in the afternoon. (Dispatch, 7-25-1906)
The government secured five lighter loads of cobblestones from the streets of Wilmington to be used in the repair work on ‘The Rocks.’ The streets were being repaired with ‘Belgian Blocks.’
July 30, 1908
The CHARLOTTE OBSERVER wrote about “The Rocks” and in the article they mentioned that “The length of the dam from Federal Point to Zeke‘s Island is one mile, but the extension of Zeke‘s Island jetties to Smith‘s Island made the line much longer.
The rock foundation of this wall was from 90 feet to 120 feet wide at the base, and for three-fourths of the line the average depth of the stone wall is 30 feet from the top of the dam. In some places it is 36 feet deep. A better idea of the vastness of the undertaking may be gained from the fact that the rock used in this great structure would build a solid wall eight feet high, four feet thick, extending from Charlotte to Greensboro and one mile beyond. (Star, 7-30-1908)
June 12, 1922
Edmund Alexander, of Wilmington, was promoting the idea of a ferry from Fort Fisher to Southport. He suggested the improvement of the road from Fort Fisher to the end of Federal Point, a distance of two miles, and at a point where the government dam known as ‘The Rocks’ begins. He suggested of the building of a small wharf and shelter at Federal Point for safely handling passengers. He reported that the distance from the wharf to Southport by ferry would be five miles. (Star, 6-12-1922)
July 3, 1922
Mr. Edmund Alexander received the endorsement of the Wilmington Chamber of Commerce and Rotary Club for repairing the two miles of road between Fort Fisher and Federal Point. As soon as the road was repaired and a river landing arranged, the managers of the Carolina Bus Line indicated their willingness to aid in the undertaking by making connection with the passenger yacht plying between Federal Point and Southport.
Captain W.E. Fountain, of Southport, had recently purchased a handsomely equipped passenger yacht of Mr. McClammy, of Wilmington, and was willing to run in connection with the bus line. The yacht had every convenience and a trip from the “Rocks” to Southport, over the broadest part of the Cape Fear River and within sight and sound of the ocean, would indeed be a delightful recreation.
It was now up to the citizens of Brunswick and New Hanover counties to establish a connecting link between the southern portions of the two counties. (Dispatch, 7-10-1922)
From Battery Buchanan out to
May 2, 1923
Capt. Edgar D. Williams, one of the leaders in the movement for conversion of the battleground at Fort Fisher into a national park, reported that certain parties were claiming considerable property within the boundaries of the old fort.
One of the parties claimed that his title to the property was based upon a land grant which was granted on payment of 12 1⁄2 cents an acre for the property. (News 6-2-1923)
April 18, 1933
Plans for repair of the Swash Defense and New Inlet dams were started as Wilmington District army engineers opened bids on a contract to supply 400 tons of stone that will be used in the work. The Raleigh Granite Company, of Raleigh, submitted the lowest bid. It was $2.35 a ton, delivered. Work was to begin early in May. (News, 4-19-1933)
July 25, 1933
Repairs to be Swash Defense and New Inlet dams were expected to be completed in two weeks. Several carloads of cement and rock had been used in the work. (News, 7-25-1933)
April 26, 1937
A petition for a semi-improved road extending from Fort Fisher Beach to “The Rocks”, signed by 70 citizens, was presented to the Board of County commissioners to be forwarded to the State Highway and Public Works
The petitioners were not asking for a standardized highway, but were seeking a semi-improved roadway, so that “The Rocks” could be made more accessible for the many anglers from Wilmington and New Hanover County. (News, 4-27-1937)
The U.S. Corps of Engineers applied a coat of cement to the top of “The Rocks” for added protection. (Star, 3-18-1971)
‘The Rocks’ Arial View: Fort Fisher to Zeke’s Island to Bald Head
Google Maps: ‘The Rocks‘
Images: Zeke’s Island
The Rocks – by Susan Taylor Block
Zeke’s Island – NC Coastal Reserve and National Estuarine Research Reserve
StarNews – Sunday, August 30, 2015
Editorial – Rocks solid
Coastal Review Online – Beach and Inlet Management: 8/28/15
Senate Plan for ‘The Rocks’ Still Unknown
Remove ‘The Rocks’?
The Closing of New Inlet (The Rocks) 1870-1881
by Sandy Jackson: Federal Point Historical Society
Lumina News 7/14/15:
Rock wall removal could cause shoaling in shipping channel, some say
NC Rep. Michael Lee proposes doing away with “The Rocks”
Excerpted from StarNews Article by Gareth McGrath, April 28, 2015