October Meeting – Angela Zombek on Civil War Prison Camps

Monday, October 21, 2019

7:30 PM

The Federal Point Historic Preservation Society will hold its monthly meeting on Monday, October 21, 7:30 pm at the Federal Point History Center, 1121-A North Lake Park Blvd., adjacent to Carolina Beach Town Hall.

This month our speaker will be Angela Zombek, History professor at UNCW. She will speak on her book Penitentiaries, Punishment, and Military Prisons.

Her book examines the military prisons at Camp Chase, Johnson’s Island, the Old Capitol Prison, Castle Thunder, Salisbury and Andersonville, whose prisoners and administrators were profoundly impacted by their respective penitentiaries in Ohio; Washington, D.C.; Virginia; North Carolina; and Georgia.

While primarily focusing on the war years, Zombek looks back to the early 1800s to explain the establishment and function of penitentiaries, discussing how military and civil punishments continuously influenced each other throughout the Civil War era.

In an interview on the web site, Women Who Know History, Dr. Zombek says; “I grew up Cleveland, Ohio and moved to Florida in 2006 to pursue my Doctorate in History. I am passionate about teaching and about history and have had the opportunity to teach in many settings, including the National Park Service, St. Francis High School (Gainesville, FL), Santa Fe College, the University of Akron, and the University of Florida.

From 2011-2018, I was Assistant Professor of History at St. Petersburg College & accepted a position as Assistant Professor of Civil War History at the University of North Carolina at Wilmington, beginning in August 2018. I have presented my research on imprisonment in the Civil War Era at numerous conferences in the U.S. and abroad.”

On April 2, 2017, she appeared in TLC’s celebrity genealogy show called “Who Do You Think You Are,” and helped actress Jessica Biel learn about the history of her Civil War ancestor (Season 8, Episode 5): https://www.tlc.com/tv-shows/who-do-you-think-you-are/.

On May 2, 2018, she appeared in a Fox 13 Tampa Bay News segment on Confederate Monuments: http://www.fox13news.com/news/local-news/tampa-bay-area-confederate-monuments.

President’s Letter – October, 2019

By Elaine Henson

Kure Memorial Lutheran Church Part VI

Kure Memorial continued to grow during the 1970s, 80s and into the 90s.

Pastors during those years were: Rev. John B. Barringer 1970-1973; Rev. Everette E. Horne 1974-1975 and Rev. Jacob H. Young 1975-1990.

A highlight of the 70s was the church’s Twenty-Fifth Anniversary celebrated in August, 1976.  Rev. Jacob Young suggested that they invite Rev. David F. Johnson to deliver the sermon since he was the first full time pastor.  Also invited was Dr. F. L. Conrad, who was still president of the Synod and also conducted the first service in the 1955 building.  The Lutheran Church Women provided lunch in the Fellowship Hall after the service.

The archive does not include any photos from the Twenty Fifth Anniversary..  If anyone has photos, please contact FPHPS.

Pastors from 1952 – 1990

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In the years before the Kure Beach Community Building was built, several organizations utilized the church’s Fellowship Hall.  The Town of Kure Beach used it along with the Kure Beach Fire Department and the Carolina Beach Recreation Department also used it for exercise classes.  Later it was used by AA and Girl Scouts.  Kure Lutheran was truly an integral part of the Federal Point beach communities.

Next month:  Kure Memorial Lutheran Church, Part VII

Interview With Angela Zombek: North and South Behind Bars

By Sarah Richardson

Interview from: History.net

Angela Zombek, assistant professor of history at University of North Carolina-Wilmington, grew interested in military prisons during a visit to Camp Chase, a Union facility in Ohio.

Over time, her studies turned to the 19th-century penitentiary movement, where incarcerated criminals were subjected to solitary confinement and conditions designed to evoke penitence and rehabilitation. How that tradition influenced Union and Confederate military prisons during the crisis of the Civil War is the subject of her book, Penitentiaries, Punishment, and Military Prisons.

CWT: Tell me about the pre-Civil War state of prisons.

AZ: Long term imprisonment developed at the turn of the 19th century when the middle class thought having a public pillory wasn’t a good idea anymore because the danger in that, or in having a public execution, is arousing sympathy for criminals. Penitentiaries and a long-term system of punishment develops. Corporal punishment and executions moved behind penitentiary walls, away from the public.

 CWT: Yet sometimes the public could participate?

AZ: Penitentiary executions were advertised as spectacles, if you were basically middle class, you could buy a ticket to see that. They also decided that they could charge admission so people could see the operation and see how inmates interacted with the guards. Those things came up later in military prisons. Governor David Tod of Ohio, for example, allowed curious people to tour Camp Chase for 20 cents.

CWT: How many were imprisoned?

AZ: People have estimated that about 490,000 people total were incarcerated during the war. That number is just limited to military prisons that got established by the Union and the Confederate governments. That number wouldn’t necessarily include the people who weren’t POWs or were suspected of treason.

 CWT: Did prisons in the North and South face different challenges?

AZ: I think they really did. That is apparent at Andersonville, Ga., which is established late in the war. There aren’t clear lines of authority. That’s not just related to Andersonville. When the prison at Salisbury, N.C., gets established, the first commandant is appointed by the state governor and he doesn’t know if he has the authority to do anything. That was the case at both Andersonville and Salisbury. The commandants had very little authority over prison conditions. Take Henry Wirz, the commander at Andersonville. He became a scapegoat at the end of the war when he was executed. But the things he could actually do to administer the camp were few and far between. For example, he had no power over the commissary. He had the rank of captain. There were literally some commanders of the guard regiments who outranked him.

 CWT: Was there a general understanding about how POWs should be treated? You mention political philosopher Francis Lieber’s 1863 General Orders No. 100 on the conduct of war?

AZ: Both prisoners and officials are looking back on penitentiary imprisonment in the earlier part of the 19th century for guideposts. That’s what Lieber did because he was held as a political prisoner in Europe [in his native Prussia in the 1820s]. He was well aware of the standards that wardens in the state should use to treat incarcerated criminals, and those standards are basically transferred in terms of food, clothing, and cleanliness, over to military prisoners.

 CWT: Prisoners were also worked as laborers in some cases, although Union soldiers often refused to be clerks for the Confederacy.

AZ: Those were basically efforts by Confederate officials to make up for lack of manpower. If they wanted a prisoner to be a clerk, for example, he was made to swear allegiance to the Confederacy. If Union prisoners had to go out to collect wood, that’s one thing because it’s for survival, but if they are going to work in a position sanctioned by the government that is basically shooting arrows at their own cause. There was a lot of resentment toward prisoners who decided to take those positions in the Confederacy.

 CWT: What other kinds of work did prisoners do?

AZ: Lieber wrote in the General Orders No. 100 that prisoners may be made to work for their captors. So officials on both sides used prison labor to make improvements to the camp, to build barracks or forms of shelter, to dig ditches, to clean up waste in various forms.

CWT: You also mention Confederates who brought slaves to prison.

AZ: That was an issue that caused controversy in Columbus, Ohio, when Confederate officers held in Camp Chase brought their slaves with them. Once the civilians in Columbus got wind of that, they were absolutely irate, had no tolerance for it, started writing editorials to local newspapers drawing attention to it and contacting the Lincoln administration to stop that practice, which they eventually did.

 CWT: What happens at war’s end?

AZ: Officials try to send prisoners home as quickly as they could. The Union did it by rank and were much more likely to send home privates than officers. They wanted to keep closer tabs on the people who actually led the companies, maybe even led the armies. That process is slow. The prisons in the South, especially in Richmond, were taken over by the U.S. government and used to help keep order in the city. That’s basically the case with Castle Thunder.

 CWT: Is there a takeaway for the war’s impact on our current prison system?

AZ: Number one, it got the federal government involved. Before the Civil War, there was only one federal prison, the D.C. penitentiary. It was shut down in September 1862. It got reopened toward the end of the war due to the need for space. But, in the latter part of the 19th century, we start to see the opening of federal prisons. Number two, the Civil War generates another reform wave because of Congress’ investigation in 1867 of Southern military prisons and because of what had gone on during the war. The National Prison Association forms in 1870, and is drawn again to the same issues, such as the conditions, the crowding, the food, the treatment. But again the actual reform of the institutions falls by the wayside.

CWT: Anything else you’d like to add?

AZ: The correspondence that prisoners in both military prisons and penitentiaries had with people at home was so moving. In correspondence from family members on both sides, I saw so profoundly that relatives of convicts and relatives of POWs say you have to trust in God and put faith in him.

 

Society Notes – October, 2019

We need your Pictures!

Hurricanes Diana, Bertha, Fran, Dennis, Floyd and even Florence!

We’ve been organizing and cataloging all the photos in our collection. We’ve got lots and lots of pictures from the days right after Hurricane Hazel and the damage caused by what’s called the Great Atlantic Hurricane of 1944, but we have almost no pictures from our “modern” storms.

If you have pictures please consider LOANING them to us to scan and add to our digital archives.  We’ll give them back, and give you a digital copy as well.  So dig out those scrapbooks or boxes of photos stashed in the closet and help us document an important historic aspect of life on our coast.


Society Notes

By Darlene Bright, History Center Director 

  • The History Center recorded 75 visitors in September. There were 41 people at the September meeting.
  • The History Center was used by the Got-Em-On Live Bait Club, the UDC, the Walk of Fame Committee, and the Ryder Lewis Park Committee.
  • Please note: Last month we welcomed Susan and John Gibbs, (not Swan Gibbs). Sorry about that! This month we welcome Dorothy and Philip Hendrick of Carolina Beach, Eric T. Howell of Carolina Beach and new Business Captain Charlie’s Adventures, owned by Charlie Schoonmaker.
  • Thanks to Steve Arthur for helping with the September Newsletter.
  • Thanks to Cheri McNeill for providing refreshments for the September meeting.

Plaque Program

Our Plaque program is back on track and we’re receiving almost one application a month! We want to especially thank Ned Barnes and his staff for volunteering to do the title searches on the properties.  This makes the approval of an application much easier on the property owner and on our review committee. Ned is a longtime business member and supporter of the Society.  If you see Ned, be sure to give him a big thank you for all his support and we highly recommend him for any legal needs you may have.  He’s right on the island at Pleasure Island Plaza, 1009 Lake Park Boulevard, North or call at 910-458-4466.  Thanks again, Ned!

 

September Meeting – Becky Sawyer talks on the Federal Point Lighthouse

The Federal Point Historic Preservation Society will hold its monthly meeting on Monday, September 16, 7:30 pm at the Federal Point History Center, 1121-A North Lake Park Blvd., adjacent to Carolina Beach Town Hall.

This month Becky Sawyer, from the Fort Fisher State Historic Site, talks about her research into the history and locations of the Federal Point Lighthouse.

From 1817 through 1880, a series of three lights guided mariners into New Inlet through the treacherous shoals of the Atlantic Ocean.  The exhibit,  “When in Five Fathoms Water: The Federal Point Lighthouse,” explains the history of the lighthouses along with its’ connection to Fort Fisher.

Recent finds at the National Archives has shed light on the location of the 1st lighthouse and a petition from local river pilots and boat owners to keep the 3rd lighthouse open.

The exhibit showcases artifacts from the 1963 Stan South archaeological dig of the lighthouse keeper’s cottage and the 2009 archaeological dig of the 1837 Federal Point Lighthouse.  These artifacts have never been on display until now.  Available at Fort Fisher gift shop are reproduction mocha ware mugs based off of examples of mocha ware ceramics found in the 1963 archaeological site.

Becky Sawyer is the Collections Manager and Exhibits Coordinator for Fort Fisher State Historic Site.  A native of the St. Louis area, Becky holds a BS in Historic Preservation from Southeast Missouri State University and an MA in Public History from the University of North Carolina at Wilmington.  She has over 20 years of Civil War history experience with the NC Historic Sites Division of which 13 years were at Fort Fisher.  She has curated several of the temporary exhibits at Fort Fisher including “An Eminent Work of Charity and Justice: The Jewett Patent Leg” and “Minerva versus Discord: The Medal of Honor”.

 

President’s Letter – September, 2019

Kure Memorial Lutheran Church, Part V

June 26, 1955, members of the Church Council are pictured in front of the cross in the new church:  L-R Oscar Wren, Merritt Foushee, Jason Lentz, Rev. David Johnson, Bob Ford, Lawrence C. Kure, Bob Hooker, Fred Schenk and Bill Williford. (The photo was taken by Bill Robertson, son in law of Lawrence Kure and then owner of the Kure Pier). These men had not only planned and raised the funds for the new building, but were also literally the driving force behind the construction and must have felt a great sense of pride on that dedication Sunday.

The church already had a Luther League for the youth and they sponsored a Boy Scout Troop.  They also had a weekday church school on Tuesday afternoons, a Women of the Church group with 34 members and basketball teams for boys and girls that played the other church teams on the island. Rev. David Johnson left in 1956 and was replaced by Rev. William Johnson, Jr. who served until 1957.  Rev. Corley Lineberger came next serving from 1957 till 1960.

In the 60’s, Kure Lutheran started a kindergarten that met weekday mornings during the public school year. In 1962, they built a new Fellowship Hall and air conditioned the sanctuary.  There was a fire in the nave in 1964 that burned the back set of arches and part of the roof that had to be repaired. Two years later they  remodeled and air conditioned the parsonage.  Pastors during the 60’s were Rev. Donald Loadholdt, 1961-62 and Rev. Ronald Weinelt, 1962-1970.

Next month: Kure Memorial Lutheran Church, Part VI

 

More about the Lords Proprietors of “Carolina”

 

(From Wikipedia)

In the beginning of the European colonial era, trade companies such as the East India Company were the most common method used to settle new land. This changed following Maryland’s Royal Grant in 1632, when King Charles I granted George Calvert, 1st Baron Baltimore proprietary rights to an area east of the Potomac River in exchange for a share of the income derived there. Going forward, proprietary colonies became the most common way to settle areas with British subjects. The land was licensed or granted to a proprietor who held expanse power. These powers were commonly written into the land charters giving the lord proprietor the power to create courts and laws, establish governing bodies and churches, and appoint all governing officials.

Each proprietary colony had a unique system of governance reflecting the geographic challenges of the area as well as the personality of the lord proprietor. The colonies of Maryland and New York, based off of English law and administration practices, were run effectively. However, other colonies such as Carolina were mismanaged. The colonies of West and East Jersey as well as Pennsylvania were distinct in their diversion from the traditional monarchial system that ruled most colonies of the time. This was due to the large number of Quakers in these areas who shared many views with the lords proprietary.

Effective governance of proprietary colonies relied on the appointment of a governor. The lord proprietor made the governor the head of the province’s military, judicial, and administrative functions. This was typically conducted using a commission established by the lord proprietor. The lord proprietor typically instructed the governor what to do. Only through these instructions could legislation be made.

In 1629, King Charles I  granted  Sir Robert Heath (the attorney general) the southern half of the English land in the New World between 36 degrees and 31 degrees north latitude from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean. The land was named “Province of Carolina” or land of Charles. Sir Robert’s attempts at settlement failed and in 1645, during the English Civil War, he was stripped of all of his possessions as a Royalist supporter of the King. In 1663, eight members of the English nobility received a charter from King Charles II to establish the colony of Carolina. The eight Lords Proprietors were:

  • Duke of Albemarle(1608–1670)
  • Earl of Clarendon(1609–1674)
  • Baron Berkeley of Stratton(1602–1678)
  • Earl of Craven(1608–1697)
  • Sir George Carteret(c. 1610–1680)
  • Sir William Berkeley(1605–1677)
  • Sir John Colleton(1608–1666)
  • Earl of Shaftesbury(1621–1683).

The Lords Proprietors were anxious to secure Carolina against Spanish attacks from Saint Augustine in Florida, and to do so, they needed to attract more colonists. The Lords Proprietors offered English settlers inducements consisting of religious toleration, political representation in an assembly that had power over public taxes, exemption from quitrents and large grants of land. The Lords allowed settlers of any religion, except atheists. The Lords also had a generous headright system whereby they granted one hundred and fifty acres of land to each member of a family. An indentured male servant who served his term received his freedom dues from his master and a grant of one hundred acres from the Lords Proprietors. In order to attract planters with capital to invest, the Lords Proprietors also gave the owner and master the one hundred and fifty acre headright for every slave imported to the Colony. These incentives drew 6,600 colonists to the colony by 1700 compared with only 1,500 in the Spanish colony of Florida. Carolina attracted English settlers, French Protestants (Huguenots) and other colonists from Barbados and the West Indies.

The first government in Carolina began in Albemarle County in 1664 when William Sayle was appointed as the governor. Proprietary authority was weaker near the Virginia border. The Lords Proprietors established a North Carolina with its own assembly and deputy governor. In 1712, the division of Carolina into North and South was completed with the elevation of the deputy governor to governor of North Carolina.

The Lords Proprietors failed to protect the settlers when enemies attacked or threatened the Colony. For example, during Queen Anne’s War (1702–1713), the colonists drove French and Spanish forces away from Charlestown. Again, between 1715 and 1718, the colonists defended themselves against attacks by the Yamasee Indians and pirates. During these times of conflict, the colonists received little or no help from the proprietors.

The elite group of settlers in Carolina, former West Indians known as the Goose Creek Men, grew increasingly frustrated with the Lords Proprietors because they meddled in politics but failed to defend the colony against Spanish and Native American attacks.

In 1719, the South Carolina assembly sent a petition to England requesting that the proprietors be replaced with Crown administration. King George I appointed royal governors for North and South Carolina, converting the colony’s status to that of a royal colony (England ruled the colony but allowed the people self-government). In 1729, the Crown bought out seven of the eight of the Lords Proprietors for £22,500, approximately the amount they had spent on the colony. The eighth proprietor, John Carteret, Lord Granville, refused to sell and retained title to the lands and quitrents in the northern third of North Carolina.

 

Society Notes – Sept, 2019

By Darlene Bright, History Center Director

We need your Pictures!

Hurricanes Diana, Bertha, Fran, Dennis, Floyd and even Florence!

We’ve been organizing and cataloging all the photos in our collection. We’ve got lots and lots of pictures from the days right after Hurricane Hazel and the damage caused by what’s called the Great Atlantic Hurricane of 1944, but we have almost no pictures from our “modern” storms.

If you have pictures please consider LOANING them to us to scan and add to our digital archives.  We’ll give them back, and give you a digitial copy as well.  So dig out those scrapbooks or boxes of photos stashed in the closet and help us document an important historic aspect of life on our coast.


  • The History Center recorded 78 visitors in August. There were 52 people at the August meeting.
  • The History Center was used by the Got-Em-On Live Bait Club and the UDC.
  • Welcome to new members Swan and John Gibbs of Rocky Mount and Katherine Schultz of Carolina Beach.
  • Thanks to Steve Arthur for helping with the August Newsletter.Thanks to Anne Hood and Doris Bame providing refreshments for the August meeting.
  • Thanks to everybody who helped with the Boardwalk walking tour: Elaine Henson, Darlene Bright, Leslie Bright, Jim Kohler, Steve Arthur, Doris Bame, Jim Dugan, Fred Fisher.
  • Thanks to Jay Winner for pressure washing the handicapped ramp and the front of the building.

Plaque Program

Our Plaque program is back on track and we’re receiving almost one application a month!

We want to especially thank Ned Barnes and his staff for volunteering to do the title searches on the properties.  This makes the approval of an application much easier on the property owner and on our review committee.

Ned is a longtime business member and supporter of the Society.  If you see Ned, be sure to give him a big thank you for all his support and we highly recommend him for any legal needs you may have.  He’s right on the island at Pleasure Island Plaza, 1009 Lake Park Boulevard, North or call at 910-458-4466.  Thanks again, Ned!

 

Jack Fryar Talks About Charles Towne, Early Colonial Settlement

Monday, August 19, 2019

7:30 PM

The Federal Point Historic Preservation Society will hold its monthly meeting on Monday, August 19, 7:30 pm at the Federal Point History Center, 1121-A North Lake Park Blvd., adjacent to Carolina Beach Town Hall.

It’s been a while since we hosted our long-time friend, Jack Fryar, who returns this month to tell us about Charles Town, an early colony established in 1664 on the Brunswick side of the Cape Fear River. He will also premiere his new book, Charles Town on the Cape Fear. Books will be available for purchase and signing.

Jack E. Fryar, Jr. is a life-long resident of southeastern North Carolina, born and raised in Wilmington. He has been a professional writer and publisher since 1994.

In 2000, Jack founded Dram Tree Books, a small publishing house whose titles tell the story of North Carolina and the Carolina coast. He has authored or edited twenty-three volumes of North Carolina and Cape Fear history, and is a frequent lecturer for historic groups in the region.

Jack is also the editor and publisher of a new digital magazine, Carolina Chronicles, covering the history of North and South Carolina. The free magazine can be accessed at www.carolinachroniclesmagazine.weebly.com.

His historical specialty is colonial North Carolina, particularly during the seventeenth century. Jack has served as a United States Marine, worked as a broadcaster, freelance magazine writer, sports announcer, and book designer. He holds a Master of Arts in History and another one in Teaching from the University of North Carolina Wilmington. He currently teaches History at E.A. Laney High School in Wilmington, N.C.

 

President’s Letter – August 2019

Kure Memorial Lutheran Church – Part IV

By Elaine Henson

Construction on the new church was rolling along at a very fast pace considering that all but one of the workers were volunteers. By early May of 1955, they had the roof on and had bricked the exterior.  In the photo below you can see the classroom building built in 1953 with a flat black roof.

Work on the interior progressed while the congregation continued to worship in the barracks church building. Over the altar in the back wall they installed the ruby red Belgium glass cross with Martin Luther’s coat of arms in the center.

They put up the elm wood paneling in the chancel and installed the elm pews, both of which remain to this day. You can see them in the photo on the right, from the dedication service which was held on  June 26, 1955.

NC Lutheran Synod President, Dr. F.L. Conrad, Lawrence Kure, Bill Williford and Pastor Johnson laid the cornerstone before worshipers went inside for the service.  Several memorial gifts were dedicated and Boy Scout Bobby Ford was given the God and Country award for his work helping to get the church ready.

It was a wonderful day for the congregation as they celebrated with dinner on the grounds after the Dedication Service. Due to their fund raising, donations and the volunteer work force, they also celebrated that Kure Lutheran’s new building opened debt free.

 

 

 

 

Next month:

Kure Memorial Lutheran Church, Part V